The North Carolina Association of Colored Graduate Nurses
The first 50 years of organized professional nursing the United States were marred by racial exclusion, prejudice and segregation. From education to employment to membership in professional associations, African American nurses in North Carolina, indeed in all the states of the old Confederacy and in much of the nation, faced legal, social and professional discrimination. When the North Carolina State Nurses Association (NCSNA) was formed in 1902, membership privileges were extended only to white nurses. Although North Carolina was then home to several high-caliber nursing schools for African Americans, including Good Samaritan in Charlotte, St. Agnes in Raleigh and Lincoln in Durham, their graduates were barred from participating in the only professional nursing organization in the state. Membership in the American Nurses Association (ANA) was granted primarily through membership in its state affiliates until 1948; therefore, membership in the predominant national professional association was also closed to most southern African American nurses.
Despite these obstacles, African American nurses survived and thrived. From tumble-down rural sharecroppers’ shacks to chrome-trimmed surgical suites, these nurses provided skilled care and warm hearts to many who were strangers to the health care system. In addition, these early African American Registered Nurses sought to fulfill the obligations of the Florence Nightingale Pledge by maintaining and elevating the standards of the nursing profession. Because the exclusively white NCSNA provided the primary arena for professional discussion, legislative activity and continuing education programs for nurses in North Carolina, a small group of African American nurses established a parallel organization in 1921, the North Carolina Association of Colored Graduate Nurses.
Background: The American Nurses Association
The Associated Alumnae of the United States and Canada (AAUSC, the antecedent to the American Nurse Association) was founded in 1896 as an organization of the alumnae societies of select nursing schools to exchange ideas and work to standardize and upgrade the new nursing profession. Only four African American schools of nursing were founding members of the AAUSC, Provident in Chicago, Lincoln in New York City, Freedman’s in Washington, D.C. and Mercy in Philadelphia. Therefore, while membership in the AAUSC was limited, it did include a few African American nurses. In 1911, the association renamed itself the American Nurses Association (ANA) and replaced membership criteria from alumna associations to membership in state nurse associations. Unfortunately, sixteen state associations in the old Confederacy as well as the nurse association in Washington DC refused to admit black members. Therefore, most African American nurses were barred from membership in the ANA until 1951 individual nurses could join even if they were not state association members. Until 1942, the National League of Nursing Education (NLNE) also required membership in the ANA for membership in the NLNE, therefore most African Nurse educators were barred from participation in the NLNE before WWII. Only the National Organization of Public Health Nursing, founded in 1912, was founded as open to all nurses regardless of race.
The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses 1908-1951
In 1906, Connecticut nurse Martha Minerva Franklin surveyed African American nurses to see what challenges they faced. One of the biggest obstacles was their inability to join the largest professional nursing organization in the country, the American Nurse Association (ANA). Two years later, in 1908, fifty-two African American nurses led by Martha Minerva Franklin and Adah Belle Samuels Thoms, met in New York City and formed the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses. Franklin was elected president at the first meeting. The new organization had three main goals: “to advance the standards and best interests of trained nurses, to break down discrimination in the nursing profession, and to develop leadership within the ranks of African American nurses” The goals of the new organization were enumerated in its Certificate of Incorporation and included promotion of the professional and educational advancement of nurses in every proper way, the elevation of the standards of nursing education and the establishment and maintenance of a code of ethics among nurses. All RNs and retired RNs were welcome to join the NACGN. Annual meetings provided opportunities for leadership, continuing education, networking, discussion and action on legal, legislative and professional issues affecting their practice, their race and the nursing profession. Through hard work, bravery and dedication, the NACGN was successful in many of its endeavors. It finally merged with the ANA in 1951.
North Carolina nurses were active in the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses
Throughout its history, North Carolina nurses were active in the NACGN. Charlotte Rhone of New Bern, a 1903 Freedman's Hospital graduate and probably the first African American Registered Nurse in the United States, was the only North Carolina nurse to attend the founding meeting of the NACGN. She was elected national secretary. Several other North Carolina nurses participated in the NACGN in its first decade. At the 4th annual meeting in 1912 in Washington, DC, Miss Sarah Leonora Hargrave of Wilmington gave a paper on “Feeding the sick” and Durham nurse Julia Latta spoke on “How can the Association be made beneficial to its members” as well as another talk on “Nursing ethics” (Of interest to nurses" JNMA 3(4), 399). The national organization held its 8th annual 3-day meeting in Raleigh on August 17-19, 1915, in the Chapel of Shaw University. The nurses toured St. Agnes Hospital. were given a trolley ride around Raleigh, and enjoyed a reception hosted by Mrs. Lottie Jackson, RN, Matron of St. Agnes Hospital. Nurse Hargrave of Wilmington was elected Corresponding Secretary. (Raleigh News and Observer 8-19-1915, p. 8) (Of interest to nurses". JNM 7(4) p.326)
At the 1916 meeting in New York City, Mrs. Lottie Jackson, of Leonard Hospital and later St. Agnes Hospital in Raleigh spoke in the “Welcoming” session and Durham public health nurse Julia Latta “presented a very spicy paper" on “Public health nursing and sanitation in the south”. Nurse Lula G. Warlick, born and raised near Charlotte but then serving as the Assistant Superintendent of Provident Hospital in Chicago “enthused the entire audience with a well prepared and well delivered paper entitled Use what is in thy hand. At that meeting, Hargrave was re-elected as the Corresponding Secretary. (Clark, M.F. (1916) "Of interest to nurses" JNMA 8(4) 203
North Carolina nurses participating in the 13th Annual Convention in Tuskegee, Alabama in 1920 included Carrie Early Broadfoot of Fayetteville, who gave the invocation and was elected as the Assistant Corresponding Secretary, Elizabeth Miller of Charlotte and Lottie Jackson of Raleigh both served on the nomination committee.
On August 19, 1921, Broadfoot convened a meeting with the four other North Carolina nurses attending the 14th Annual Convention of the NACGN in Washington, D.C. At that time, Broadfoot was the treasurer of the NACGN and the Superintendent of Nurses at the Negro Division of the North Carolina Sanitarium in Sanitarium, NC, a state-funded tuberculosis hospital. These five founding nurses: Carrie Early Broadfoot, Charlotte Hall McQueen Faison, Miss Anna Saunders, M. L. Taylor (secretary of the new group) and Elizabeth Miller formed the North Carolina Association of Colored Graduate Nurses. Upon returning to North Carolina, these nurses contacted as many nurses as possible about the benefits of having a professional African American nursing organization. At that time in North Carolina, each county’s Clerk of Court maintained a Registry of Nurses in their office. There was no statewide registry (the county registries were consolidated in Raleigh in the 1930s – thus creating a state wide data base of nurses), so trying to contact every African American nurse in the state was a somewhat haphazard effort. They did their best before the days of consolidated registration records, telephones or the internet.
The North Carolina Association of Colored Graduate Nurses
Their hard work paid off. Twenty-one nurses attended the first in-state meeting of the NCACGN on January 18, 1923, in Winston-Salem. Broadfoot was elected president, a post she held for the next eight years. The meeting opened with the singing of the first verse of “All hail the power of Jesus’s name” followed by a recitation of the 23rd Psalm and then the Lord's Prayer. Dues were set at $1 to join and $1 a year. Eight nurses gave podium presentations on the advantages and disadvantages of different practice settings.
The group voted that membership be restricted to RNs – retired nurses who were not registered could join as honorary members. The first nurse registration law in the country passed the North Carolina General Assembly on March 3, 1903. Nursing school graduates who finished before 1904 could register at their county’s Clerk of Court office by presenting their diploma and two letters of reference from physicians. Charlotte Rhone and Annie Lowe Rutherford, both graduates of Freedman’s Hospital School of Nursing, an African American school in Washington, D.C., registered in North Carolina in 1903. Beginning in 1904, nurses were required to pass the State Board of Nursing Examination to earn the title Registered Nurse. The North Carolina Board of Nursing refused to allow African American nursing school graduates to take the exam until Public Law 284 passed the North Carolina Legislature in 1915. This forced their hand, as the law in full stated:
CHAPTER 284. AN ACT TO REGULATE THE EMPLOYMENT OF COLORED NURSES IN HOSPITALS. The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact: Section 1. That in every public and private hospital, sanatorium, and institution in North Carolina where colored patients are admitted for treatment and where nurses are employed it shall be mandatory upon the management of every such hospital, sanatorium and institution to employ colored nurses to care for and wait upon said colored patients. Sec. 2. That every person, firm or corporation violating the Misdemeanor, provisions of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon Punishment, conviction thereof shall be fined the sum of fifty dollars for each and every offense. Sec. 3. That all laws and clauses of laws in conflict with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed. Sec. 4. That this act shall be in force from and after its ratification. In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this the 9th day of March, 1915.
Many hospital administrators wanted to hire Registered Nurses to both improve their reputations and to meet emerging hospital accreditation requirements. Beginning in 1916 this meant they had to hire African American RNs if they maintained segregated “Negro” wings or wards in their hospitals. Five brave African American nursing school graduates sat for and passed the exam in 1916, 17 did so in 1917 and 30 in 1918. By 1923, when the first session of the NACGN was held, approximately 110 African American nurses held the title Registered Nurse in North Carolina.
The second annual session of the NACGN was held in Charlotte on May 1, 1924. By then, African American nurses in the larger cities had organized chapters of the state association. The minutes of the second annual session report that the Winston-Salem chapter had 10 active members, held regular monthly meetings and developed “a deep interest in helping the unfortunate.” The 15 members of the Charlotte chapter, also known as the Florence Nightingale Club, held monthly meetings and contributed to charity, especially “the unfortunate, underweight school children.” They also took bed sheets to the county-managed old folks’ home. The Raleigh chapter reported ten members. “Their attention is turned towards helping the hospital” (St Agnes Hospital in Raleigh). The Durham Chapter was organized in 1923 with nine active members. The chapter furnished a room in the new Lincoln Hospital. Nurses in Greensboro, Wilson, Wilmington, Henderson, Kinston, Gastonia and High Point also formed chapters in the 1920s.
Membership in the NACGN offered opportunities for professional growth. Members rotated leadership positions, attended and coordinated local, state and national conferences, lobbied elected officials about health and nursing concerns and took turns representing North Carolina on the NACGN Executive Board. In addition, members co-sponsored numerous events with groups such as National Negro Health Week committees, the National Health Circle, the American Red Cross and the Anti-Tubercular Society.
Talk of affiliation between the white NC State Nurses Association (NCSNA) and the African American NCACGN in the 1920s
In 1925, both the white NCSNA and the African American NCACGN discussed affiliation at their separate annual meetings. According to the minutes of the white NCSNA:
Miss Ross told about the nurses attending the meeting of the Colored Nurses Association and coming back very enthusiastic. It was suggested every aid possible should be extended to the colored nurses.
Minutes of the NACGN state:
A letter from Mary P. Laxton (President of the NCSNA) was read which discussed affiliation between the NCSNA and the NCACGN. Miss Blanche Hays (Vice President of the NCACGN) made a motion that was seconded by Mrs. Robinson to write to Nurse Laxton approving affiliation between the 2 organizations.
On March 19, 1926, NCSNA President Laxton wrote to Jane VandeVrede, President of the ANA, saying:
We feel that affiliation with our state organization [the NACGN] would be wiser than accepting that organization as a section, that however is only the opinion of a few. You may also be interested to know that at our last annual meeting an advisory committee for the Colored Nurse Association, consisting of the State President, President of the Board of Examiners and the Education Director was appointed after some correspondence with the President of the Colored Nurse Association. As yet, we have not been called upon but signified our willingness to help them in any way we could.
As far as can be determined, nothing happened after these early discussions of affiliation. A merger finally occurred in 1949.
During the 1930s, despite the Great Depression with unemployment at records numbers the NCACGN continued to grow. The group legally changed its name to the North Carolina Association of Negro Registered Nurses, Inc. (NCANRN) in 1931. In 1934 there were active chapters in Winston-Salem, Wilmington, High Point, Durham, Fayetteville, Greensboro, Raleigh, Charlotte, Weldon, Clinton, Rocky Mount, Goldsboro, Jamestown and Tarboro. By 1938, the membership numbered 150. Racial discrimination deeply concerned members. In 1937, there were only 11 hospitals in North Carolina employing African American nurses. In addition, African American nurses wanting to work in community health could only find jobs in a few cities. The seven African American nursing education programs open in 1930 were joined by Kate B. Reynolds Hospital School of Nursing in 1938. These schools, like the segregated white schools in North Carolina, ranged from substandard to excellent. However, the disproportionate lack of funds for libraries and equipment, limited clinical facilities and less educated faculty in the African American schools were reflected in the 1936 State Board of Nursing examination results: 70% of white students passed, but only 36% of African American graduates passed that year. Some African American schools of nursing were successful in securing funds for nursing education from the Rosenwald and Duke Foundations and other sources in the 1930s. By 1940 the passing rates remained at 70% for white exam takers but rose to 50% for African Americans. African Americans hospital schools of nursing in North Carolina that operated in the 1930s were St. Agnes in Raleigh, Lincoln in Durham, Good Samaritan in Charlotte, Community in Wilmington, Jubilee in Henderson, L. Richardson in Greensboro, The Negro Division of the State Sanitorium in Sanitorium, McCauley Private Hospital in Raleigh, and Kate B. Reynolds in Winston-Salem opened in 1938. Blue Ridge Hospital School of Nursing in Asheville closed in 1930.
Attitudes and laws were slowly changing for the better in the 1940s. African American troops and nurses served in World War II in record numbers. In 1948, President Truman signed Executive Orders 9980 and 9981, integrating the armed forces and the federal work force. In line with these changes, in 1948 the American Nurse Association opened membership to individual RNs – no longer requiring membership in state affiliates in order to join the national organization. This opened the doors for all nurses of color in every state to join the ANA. After World War II, nurses—particularly those working in VA hospitals and other federal facilities—began organizing unions and entered into collective bargaining agreements. The NCSNA was the union representative for nurses at several VA hospitals in North Carolina. The federal government would only bargain with racially integrated unions. This provided a further incentive to integrate the NCSNA. Given these circumstances, leadership of the NCSNA and the NCANRN began talks to merge the two organizations in the mid-1940s. Despite some members’ misgivings in each organization, and concern about where an integrated group could meet and eat together under the segregation laws of North Carolina, majorities in each organization voted to merge.
The delegates to the 1947 NCSNA Convention voted to delete the sentence in their by-laws that read: “only white nurses can belong to this organization,” and in 1948, NCSNA delegates, by a vote of 52 to 22, voted to merge with the NCANRN. Elizabeth M. Thompson, President of NCANRN, closed the last meeting of the organization in 1949 with these words:
The final chapter has been written by the North Carolina Association of Negro Registered Nurses, Inc., but the activities of nurses and nursing must go on. As professional women, we all have a great part to play in furthering the progress and elevating the standards of this work. The integrating of the associations gives opportunity for great service, and by so doing, humanity will be better served.
Maria B. Noell, executive secretary of the NCSNA in 1949, reacted to the actions of the NCANRN by saying:
Since all citizens of North Carolina need adequate nursing care and since the professional nursing organizations are to a great degree responsible for such care, I believe the action taken this morning by the N.C. Association of Negro Registered Nurses, Inc. to dissolve its organization of 27 years standing and to associate itself wholly with the NC State Nurses’ Association will be a great asset in promoting nursing service for all North Carolinians.
While the desegregation of the NCSNA was a huge step forward, it took over a decade after the merger of the professional nursing organizations for white schools of nursing in North Carolina to accept African American students. It took the Simkins v. Moses Cone court case in 1963 and the passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 to begin to end employment discrimination against African American nurses in North Carolina. In 1962, Dean Helen Miller, RN, MSN, CNM, of the North Carolina Central University School of Nursing became the first African American nurse to be elected the president of a district nursing association in North Carolina (District 11). In 1966 she was the first African American nurse appointed to a three-year term on the North Carolina Board of Nursing. In 1967, Ollie Mae Massey Carroll, RN, became the first African American to graduate from the UNC Chapel Hill BSN program, and Donna Harris became the first African American BSN Duke University School of Nursing graduate. Twenty years later Dr. Ernestine Small became the first African American president of the NCSNA.
Most nurses today are unaware of the hard work and professionalism exhibited by a small group of African American Tarheel nurses in the first half of the twentieth century. These nurses worked under very difficult circumstances to promote professional nursing. Their determination to elevate the standards of nursing for themselves and their patients can inspire us today to address the issue of health disparities still plaguing our country.
Notices like this one were printed annually from 1950-1964.
SYNOPSIS OF THE MINUTES OF THE NCACGN 1921-1949
Note: This summary of the minutes of the NACGN, found in the state archives, reflect the variations in the actual minutes. Some years have comprehensive accounts of the events and people who attended the annual sessions of the NCACGN/NCANRN, others offer scant reports and use only last names or no names at all. No minutes for 1932, 1936 or 1940 were found. Boldface denotes information added by the author of this Sourcebook for contextual purposes, regular font is used for information taken from the actual minutes.
An organizational meeting of the NCACGN held in NC was held at 3 pm on January 18, 1923 in Winston-Salem at the YMCA building. 21 nurses were present. They were: Gertrude Salter (High Point), Miss Nellie McKenzie (later Sanders) public health nurse from Charlotte. Mrs. H.B. (Lois Rice) Cunningham, Asheville, Elected Vice President, Anna H Moorehead, elected corresponding secretary, Mrs. Edith B. Anderson, Mrs. Sadie Price, Mrs. Katie Corbett Jenkins (Aberdeen), Miss Lucy Dillard (Winston-Salem), Miss Foster (Wilson), Miss Sadie E. Eaton (Raleigh), Miss Girlie Jones (later Strickland, Winston-Salem), Miss Tallian, Mrs. Bailey, Mrs. N.B. McCallum (President of the Winston -Salem Chapter), Mrs. McCall, Mrs. A.K. Brown (Winston -Salem), Mrs. Claudia White Tucker (High Point) Miss A.E. Harrell (Raleigh), Anna E. Saunders, Flora Gray and Vardelia Johns.
The meeting opened with the singing of the first verse of "All hail the power of Jesus's name" followed by a recitation of the 23rd Psalm and then the Lord's Prayer.
Dues were set at $1.00 to join and $1 a year.
The group voted that only RNs could join – retired nurses who were not registered could be honorary members.
Miss Salter spoke on the Problems in private duty
Mrs. Claudia White Tucker spoke on the Problems of Institutional nursing
Anna E. Saunders spoke on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Hospital Work
Mrs. Anderson spoke on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Duty Nursing
Mrs. Moorehead spoke on the Problems of Public Health Work
Miss Girlie Jones - spoke on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Heath work
Mrs. Flora Gray and Mrs. Varedelia Johns also spoke.
The treasury had $14.20
It was decided that nurses must be members of their local chapter in order to become members of the state organization.
The 1rst Annual session was held on May 2, 1923 in Raleigh at the 1rst Baptist Church.
The nurses voted that they would meet independently of the NC Chapter of the National Medical Association meetings (the national organization of African American doctors, dentists and pharmacists). The Vice President and Assistant Secretary were not Registered Nurses so they were replaced. Registered Nurse Julia Latta of Durham was elected as Vice President, and Mrs. Henderson was elected as the new Corresponding Secretary.
The group voted that all nurses who graduated before 1912 could be members whether they were registered or not.
NOTE: The first African American nurse in North Carolina to become registered by examination was Mary Briscoe Fernandez, a St. Agnes graduate, in 1916. (It is thought that the State Board of Nursing Examiners refused to administer the test to African American nursing school graduates prior to that time). NC passed the first nursing registration aw in the country in March 1903. It took a while for a Board of Nursing to be constituted and then for the Board to form an "Examination Committee" and com up with a test. While these things were being worked out, in 1903 any nurse showing thier degree/certificate from thier school of nursing and two letters attesting to thier ability an fitness to nurse signed by physicians, could present these items to thier county Clerk of Court and he (always "he" in those days) would enter the nurses name in the Nurses Register for that county. In this manner a few African American nurses were registered in 1903 including Charlotte Rhone of New Bern - the first African Ameican Registered Nurse in the country and Annie Lowe Rutherford.
The Keynote speaker at the 1923 meeting in Raleigh was Dr. J.W. Walker of Asheville on the topic of Tuberculosis Sanitoriums.
Miss Maye Irwin the Director of Nursing of Freedmen’s Hospital in Washington, D.C. presented a paper.
Dr. McCauley of Raleigh gave talk on the education of colored children in NC.
Julia Latta was voted to represent group at the national meeting of the NACGN.
The 2nd Annual Session - May 1, 1924 in Charlotte at the Grace AME Zion Church
14 new members attended.
There were discussions on the importance of state registration, uniforms, midwives, practical nurses and small hospitals turning out unprepared nurses.
A Publicity Committee was formed with Mrs. A.K. Brown of Charlotte, Miss E. Miller, Miss Blanche Hayes, Miss Price of Durham, Miss C. Foster of Wilson, Miss Hill Robinson of Raleigh as members.
The Winston-Salem chapter reported 10 active members, regular monthly meetings and “a deep interest in helping the unfortunate”
The Greensboro Chapter disbanded because they had only 2 active members.
The Charlotte Chapter, also known as The Florence Nightingale Club, was organized in 1923 and had regular monthly meetings. There were 15 members. The Club contributed to charity, especially “the unfortunate, underweight school children”, they also took bed sheets to the county managed old folks’ home.
The Raleigh chapter reported 10 members. “Their attention is turned towards helping the hospital” (St Agnes Hospital in Raleigh).
The Durham Chapter was organized in 1923. There were 9 active members. The club furnished a room in the new Hospital (Lincoln Hospital in Durham was rebuilt around this time) and cared for a sick member of the club.
Miss Sadie Eaton of Raleigh was appointed “journalist” with the task of getting notices of meetings in local newspapers.
Blanche Hayes was elected Vice President and spoke on School Nursing and “she brought a number of children who put on a health play”.
Dr. J.W. Walker gave a talk on Tuberculosis in the school child.
Treasurer’s report: Balance on hand $29.72, Collected at meeting $76, Check from Mrs. Spaulding $5 Total $108.72
1925 – Minutes of white North Carolina State Nurse Association (NCSNA) meeting, p. 24 state: Miss Ross told about the nurses attending the meeting of the Colored Nurses Association and coming back very enthusiastic. It was suggested every aid possible should be extended to the colored nurses.
The 3rd Annual Session was held on May 7, 1925 in Durham at King David's Hall
10 new members were listed as joining at this convention: *Miss Kate Corbet Jenkins, Mrs. Mamie Hill Oxlie, Miss Henderson, *Claudia Tucker from Greensboro, Mrs. Eula Julia David, *Lucy Dillard from Winston-Salem, Mercie D. Wheeler from Raleigh, M. Gabriel from Charlotte, Miss Savage from Winston-Salem
* These nurses attended the 1923 meeting in Winston-Salem, but maybe they did not officially join the organization at that time.
Many old members unable to pay dues but the association voted NOT to drop them from the rolls.
The membership voted that nurses who had graduated between the years 1912 and 1920 could be members if they graduated from a 2-year program from a hospital with at least 25 beds.
After 1920 members must be graduates from a 3-year course in an accredited program in a hospital with over 50 beds which required a high school diploma for admission.
A letter from Mary P. Laxton (President of the white NC State Nurses Association) was read which discussed affiliation between the NCSNA and the NCACGN. Miss Blanche Hays made a motion that was seconded by Mrs. Robinson to write to Nurse Laxton approving affiliation between the 2 organizations. The merger would not happen until 1949.
Blanche Hayes (later Sansom and future President of the NCACGN) spoke about School nursing, other topics included National Negro Health Week, Tonsils & Adenoid clinics, the Mecklenburg Milk contest, preschool clinics and an anti-typhoid campaign.
There was a panel on the necessity of Public Health. The following public health nurses spoke on the panel: Miss French, Nellie McKenzie and Blanche Hayes of Charlotte and Miss Mamie Hill from Raleigh.
There was also discussion about the problem of practical nurses being hired as Registered Nurses.
Miss Miller from Good Samaritan Hospital in Charlotte spoke on private duty nursing
The members agreed on private duty prices to charge the public:
Medical cases 12 hours on duty= $35/week
Obstetrical cases 12 hours on duty =$40/week
Contagious diseases 12 hours on duty = $45-50/week
Some of those attending were: A.E. Harrell of Raleigh, Miss Mary Henry of Winston -Salem, Miss Douglas, Miss M.D. Wheeler of Raleigh, Miss F Price, Miss Robinson of Raleigh
An executive committee composed of nurses Latta, Saunders, Wheeler, A.K. Brown and Robinson was formed, as was a finance committee composed of nurses Latta, Tucker, Savage and Eaton.
The American Journal of Nursing published this account of the meeting:
Nursing News and Announcements. (1925). The American Journal of Nursing, 25(7), 602-628. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3409272
March 1926 -The American Nurses Association (ANA) showed interest in affiliation with the NACGN. At the direction of nurse Jane VandeVrede of the ANA, NCSNA President Mary P. Laxton wrote to President Broadfoot of the NCACGN on March 11, 1926 saying she was forwarding a questionnaire from Jane VandeVrede, chair of an ANA committee to establish an affiliation between the two national organizations. Below are the questions and President Broadfoot's (CEB) answers:
Q: What schools are listed with the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses?
CEB: Lincoln, Good Samaritan, St Agnes
Q: Are graduates of these schools admitted to the state registration?
Q: Is there a state Association for Colored Nurses?
CEB: Yes 4 years old
Q: Are there local Associations of colored nurses? If so, where?
CEB: Yes, Winston-Salem, Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Greensboro, High Point
A week later, on March 19 1926, NCSNA President Laxton wrote this to Nurse VandeVrede:
We feel that affiliation with our state organization [the NCACGN] would be wiser than accepting that organization as a section, that however is only the opinion of a few. You may also be interested to know that at our last annual meeting an advisory committee for the Colored Nurse Association, consisting of the State President, President of the Board of Examiners and the Education Director was appointed after some correspondence with the President of the Colored Nurse Association. As yet, we have not been called upon but signified our willingness to help them in any way we could.
As far as can be determined, no concrete action came from this correspondence.
The 4th Annual Session was held May 5, 1926 in Greensboro at the St. James Presbyterian Church
President Broadfoot spoke on “The moral, literal, religious and professional training of the nurse”
Dr. S.P. Sebastian, of Greensboro, gave the keynote address on “Managing and governing our own hospitals”
Nurse Girlie Jones Strickland (Winston-Salem) and Nurse Emma Evans (Greensboro) gave a talk on “Malnutrition”
Mrs. J.E. McDonald presented a paper for Nurse Salome Taylor (Head nurse and nursing school director at Community Hospital in Wilmington who could not attend the meeting) on "Nursing as a calling".
Mrs. Sadie Eaton spoke on "Pneumonia and the nurse".
Mrs. Anna Moorhead gave a demonstration of a pre-natal home visit and delivered a paper on the benefits of public health nursing to the community.
Dr. Rivera spoke on “Oral health”
Local chapter officers were:
Raleigh - Addie E. Lane - President, R. Sawyer -Secretary
Durham - Pearl Henderson - President, K.C. Jenkins – Secretary
High Point – Mrs. Robbins – President, Anna E. Saunders – Secretary
Greensboro - Emma Evans – President, M.L. Taylor – Secretary
Charlotte - H. French -President, Nurse Mathews - Secretary
Also present were Mrs. J.E. McDonald of Greensboro, L. Booker of Greensboro, Nurse Robinson of High Point, Nurse Teer and Mrs. Smith of Winston-Salem and from places that were not named: M. Ragan, Miss King and A.J. Freeman
The group voted to increase the conference fees to $5. They also discussed founding a home for sick nurses (similar to Dunnwyche, a home for sick nurses founded by the white NCSNA in the 1910s). It was suggested that each of the 5 chapters raise $50 to start this project.
The meeting ended with the singing of the Negro National Anthem (Lift every voice and sing)
Members (with Presidents and secretaries of local chapters listed) in 1926 were:
French - President of Chapter
Mathews - Secretary
18 total members
Addie E. Lane -President
R. Sawyer - Secretary
Mrs. M.D. Wheeler
Mrs. L. Robinson Savage
Mary E. Henry
A.E. Saunders -Treasurer
Patty Carter - President
Julia Latta - VP of state organization
Katie Jenkins Secretary
4 members including:
Emma Evans - President
Robinson – President
A.E. Saunders - Secretary
Nurses from unknown hometowns
Foster - Wilson
The 5th Annual Session was held on May 4, 1927 in High Point at the 1rst Baptist Church
There were 17 members present. Six new nurses joined the organization. They were: R.C. Hennie – Franklinton, Mabel Miller – Raleigh, Mabel Lee – Greensboro, Allene Pettere – Raleigh, Ardelia Compton - Chapel Hill. Mary E Holt - High Point
Other members attending the convention were: Nellie McKenzie of Charlotte, Lillyn P. Newsome of Durham later from New Bern, M. Tucker, Sadie Eaton of Raleigh, Annie Harrell of Raleigh, Marie Carper
Local club treasuries reported Greensboro= $43, Winston-Salem = $50, High Point = $50
Mrs. W.M. Greer spoke on Tuberculosis patients
Lucy Dillard spoke on School Nursing
Nurses Robbins, Holt and Hennie spoke on Venereal Disease (STDs)
A round table discussion on numerous topics was conducted by nurses Robbins, Holt, Hennie, Dillard, Cothran and Harrell.
President Broadfoot gave her annual address
State officers elected for 1928 were:
Carrie Broadfoot – President
Annie K. Brown - VP
Annie E. Harrell - Secretary
Emma Evans - Assistant Secretary
Lucy Dillard - Corresponding Secretary
Mamie Oxley - Treasurer
The 6th Annual Session - Winston-Salem on May 2-4, 1928 at the AME Zion Church
39 members were present, 6 new members joined including:
Ruby Woodbury, Edith McNeill, Lillyn P. Newsome, Ruth Brown, Augusta Grady
Flora Gray sang the opening song
Dr. Callas from Tuskegee Hospital spoke on "Pathology pre-and-post birth"
Miss Idle and Miss Stafford brought greeting from the American Red Cross.
Salome Taylor, Superintendent of Community Hospital in Wilmington, sent $5.00 and a letter of regret that she could not attend and sent Miss Wood and Miss Burey (Busey?) in her stead.
It was agreed that no public dances would be given in the name of the association.
Others attending were: Booker, Saulters, Ballentine, Love and Hill
The American Journal of Nursing carried this report of the meeting:
News. (1928). The American Journal of Nursing, 28(6), 619-633. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3408627
The 7th Annual Session - May 1-3, 1929 in Charlotte - Grace AM Zion Church
The first day was a business meeting. Mrs. Annie K. Brown of Winston-Salem opened with a devotion. The second day was devoted to continuing education.
Petra Pinn, former President of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses spoke on "The greatest need of the nursing profession - Understanding" followed by a discussion led by Lillian Savage.
Lillyn Newsome, State Nurse, Craven County Health Department of New Bern addressed "Maternity, Infancy Nursing and Control of Epidemics". Followed by a discussion led by Mrs. Nellie McKenzie of Charlotte.
Eunice Douglas Heilig and Mary E. Wall gave a talk on Well Baby stations and pre-school work.
Campbell talked about the improvements at St. Agnes Hospital in Raleigh where she was Superintendent
Louise Mason presented a paper about private duty nursing followed by a discussion led by Emma Evans of Greensboro
Miller talked about Good Samaritan Hospital in Charlotte
Mrs. L.A. Oxley of Raleigh and Mrs. Freedland Price of Durham gave a talk on the Rural aspects of Public Health Nursing
Annie M. Wheeler of Charlotte gave a talk about Office Nursing.
Dr. H.R. Greene spoke about the relationships between doctors and nurses.
Dr. A.G. Daley of Gastonia talked about tuberculosis.
Mary Lewis Wyche (founder of the NCSNA) wrote to the organization saying she was compiling a history of nursing in North Carolina for a book. She asked the group to contribute information.
An executive committee was elected with nurses Peebles, Heilig, Mathews, Brown, Oxley, Robbins and Taylor as members.
There was discussion of affiliation with the white NC State Nurse Association. A letter was sent to its president Dorothy Conyers asking for an update on the idea of a merger.
Officers elected for 1929 were
Mrs. Carrie Broadfoot – President from Sanitarium
Mrs. Annie K. Brown – Vice President from Winston -Salem
Annie Harrell – Secretary from Raleigh
Emma Evans - Assistant Secretary from Greensboro
Lucy Dillard from Winston-Salem
Mrs. L.A. Oxley – Treasurer
Anna H. Moorehead - State Organizer from Winston-Salem
Mary E. Holt - State Organizer from High Point
Attending were Miss Emma R. Evans of Greensboro, Mrs. Annie K. Brown of Winston-Salem, Miss Mercie Wheeler of Charlotte, Mrs. Nellie McKenzie Sanders of Charlotte, Mrs. Robbins of High Point, Mrs. Lillian Savage of Durham, Miss Louise Mason, and Emma Evans of Greensboro
New Members: Gladys Holmes and Olise Campbell, both St Agnes graduates.
The group chose blue and gold as their colors
Each member was served coca-cola and chewing gum by Mrs. Nell McKenzie Sanders.
The 8th Annual Convention was held on May 7-9, 1930 in Raleigh at the Nurses Home at St. Agnes Hospital, The St. Paul AME Church and the Raleigh City Auditorium
Mrs. Carrie Broadfoot – President
Mrs. Annie K. Brown – Vice President
Miss Eunice Douglas Heilig – Secretary
Miss Lucy Dillard – Assistant Secretary
Mrs. Mamie Hill Oxley – Treasurer
Chapter presidents were presented to the delegates and were Olise Campbell of Raleigh, Ruby Woodbury of Greensboro, Mary Peebles of Winston - Salem and Lillyn Newsome of Durham (This is probably an error since Newsome lived in New Bern).
Officers and members of the Raleigh Chapter (the Edith Cavell Club), the hosting chapter
Olise Campbell – President,
Versie L. Hobbs -Secretary -Treasurer
Elizabeth Bailey, Geneva Collins (future President of NCACGN), Sadie Eaton, Aggie Freeman
Annie Harrell, Lila Haywood, Effie Lytle, Mamie Hill Oxley, Annie Palmer, S. Bruce Simpson
Mary Street, Addie Wall, Mattie D. Westcot, Zenobia Swails, Willie Gus Williams, Ethel Mae
Other attendees included:
Mrs. Henry (Mercie, Douglas) Edwards of Charlotte, Mary Peebles of Winston-Salem, Mrs. Ruby A.F. Woodbury Scarlett (future President of NCACGN), the Superintendent of L. Richardson Hospital in Greensboro, Salome Taylor - Superintendent and Director of the nursing school at Community Hospital in Wilmington.
Registration fee was 50 cents
Papers in 1930 included:
The place of nurses in Public Health programs by Miss Mary Peebles of Winston-Salem followed by a discussion led by Ruby Woodbury of Greensboro.
Nursing standards and requirements by Dorothy Conyers, President of the white NCSNA
Tuberculosis and the Negro by Dr. A.L. Jackson of the US Public Health Service and several other presentations by physicians on public health topics.
Mrs. Lytle (one of the first 2 African American nursing graduates in NC from St. Agnes Hospital School of Nursing in 1896) and Olise Campbell of Raleigh gave a history of St. Agnes Hospital
Mrs. Lytle of Raleigh agreed to make a survey of African American graduate nurses in the state.
The 9th Annual Convention was held May 6-8, 1931 in Wilmington at the Central Baptist Church. There was a public meeting at New Hanover High School and a formal reception at Payne's Hotel.
State Officers in 1931
Carrie E. Broadfoot – President
Annie K. Brown – Vice President
Miss Eunice D. Heilig – Secretary
Lucy Dillard – Corresponding Secretary
Mrs Mamie Hill Oxley – Treasurer
Wilmington Chapter officers and members:
Miss Salome Taylor - (Superintendent of Community Hospital) Wilmington Chapter President
Alice Lomax Carper - Wilmington Chapter Secretary - Treasurer
Nancy S. Armstrong, Alice Crawley, Leonora S. Hargrave, May Poitier. Eva Redrick, Mrs. Clifford Richardson
Others attending included:
Ruby Woodbury of Greensboro, A. H. Moorehead of Winston-Salem, Miss Faison of Wilson, Miss Steadman of Greensboro, Mrs. Sellers of Rockingham, Mrs. Allen of Dunn, Avesh Edwards of Raleigh, Lila Haywood of Raleigh, Elizabeth Bailey of Raleigh, Bettee Broadhead
Papers given were on the topics of:
The role of the nurse in communicable diseases
Advantages and disadvantage of small hospitals by Salome Taylor
Necessity of rural nurses in schools - by Columbia Munds- the white Supervisor of the New Hanover County Health Department.
Mrs. A.H. Moorehead also addressed the convention.
There was a sightseeing tour to Fort Fisher and other points of interest.
Elected officers for 1932 were:
Blanche Hayes Sansom of Charlotte – President
Mrs. A. Brown of Winston-Salem VP
Ethel Young of St. Agnes Hospital in Raleigh – Secretary
Eunice Heilig of Charlotte- Assistant Secretary
Lucy Dillard of Winston-Salem- Assistant Secretary
Charlotte Faison of Wilson - Assistant Secretary
Mamie Hill Oxley -Treasurer
Carrie E. Broadfoot - President Emeritus
A Board of Directors was elected and included:
Pearl Henderson of Durham, Alma Ballentine of Winston-Salem, Elizabeth McMillan of Fayetteville, Anna Hill Moorehead of Winston-Salem, and Eva J. Adams of Henderson
NOTE: 1931 – There were 20 African American Public Health Nurses in NC
NOTE: A special, called meeting of the executive committee of the NCACGN met at the new $100,000 nurse’s home of St. Agnes Hospital on the campus of St. Augustine College in Raleigh to formally receive the Articles of Incorporation for the newly renamed North Carolina Association of Negro Registered Nurses from the North Carolina Secretary of State.
NO MINUTES FOR 1932 are in the state archives - perhaps the meeting was cancelled due to the severity of the Great Depression.
11th annual meeting of the NC Association of Negro Registered Nurses, Inc. was held June 8, 1933 in Fayetteville at the State Normal School (now FSU)
15 members were present, 4 new members joined. Elizabeth McMillan (later Thompson and later President of the NCANRN) of Fayetteville and FSU coordinated and hosted the meeting.
Miss Young of St Agnes gave a talk on “New methods of training school and record keeping.”
The officers were
Blanche Hayes Sansom, President
Ruby A.F. Woodbury Scarlett (Hilton) Vice President
Eunice D. Heilig Secretary
Officers elected for 1934 were:
A.F. Woodbury Scarlett of Greensboro President
Elizabeth McMillan of Fayetteville 1rst Vice President
Ethel Young of Raleigh 2nd Vice President.
B.E. Jackson of Lincoln Hospital in Durham was elected Secretary.
Eunice D. Heilig public health nurse of Charlotte was elected Corresponding Secretary.
Geneva Collins (later Hunt and later President of the organization) of Raleigh Assistant Secretary
Others attending were: Anna Saunders, E. Richardson, Beatrice Brown
The group voted to put out a quarterly newsletter to be called “The Gazette”. Ruby Scarlett was named editor. Unfortunately, the Gazette was never printed.
The 12th Annual Convention was held in 1934 in Wilson
22 members present including Annie Mae Wheeler of Charlotte, Emily L. Johnson Greensboro, Miss Sykes of Goldsboro
Local clubs were active in Winston-Salem, Wilmington, High Point, Durham, Fayetteville, Greensboro, Raleigh, Charlotte, Weldon, Clinton, Rocky Mount, Goldsboro, Jamestown and Tarboro.
Dr. W.H. Phillips gave a talk on oral hygiene
Anna Saunders, RN of High Point, spoke on “Loyalty to the profession”
Dr. Wade of Wilson spoke on Pellagra.
Mrs. Richardson of Wilson gave a talk on “The Public Health Nursing bag”
President Emeritus Broadfoot urged nurses to go to the polls and vote
There was a general discussion on the poor showings of African American student nurse scores on N.C. Nursing Board Examinations
Anna H. Moorehead gave a Public Health Nurse home visit demonstration
Ethel Ward spoke on “Ward teaching”
From Wilson, NC (probably nurses from Mercy Hospital)
Marion Chambers, Mabel Ellis, Izette Green, Annie McCarran, Catherine Bynum
From Goldsboro (These nurses probably worked at the State Hospital for the Colored Insane – now called Cherry Hospital)
Mae H. Portier, Susie Boaden, Emily Johnson, Pollie Ann Raeford
Ethel Harriston- worked at the Guilford Sanitarium in Jamestown
M.E. Grey worked at Lincoln Hospital in Durham
1934 - Nurse Edith McNeil was on a panel at the National meeting of the NACGN discussing infant and maternal mortality rates. She addressed the continuing need for trained midwives in reducing the infant and maternal mortality rates and advocated health education for both midwives and expectant mothers.
NOTE: On April 2,1934 Broadfoot reflected on her years as President of the organization in a letter to Lula West, President of the white NCSNA saying:
"I have been President [of the NCACGN] for 9 years, long enough for the Association to Incorporate and with a few hundred dollars in the treasury, and so I do feel that I did accomplish something for the good of the Association. Of course, in organizing the Association and being its President for 9 years was not smooth sailing and no doubt I made errors."
The 13th Annual Convention held in at the First Baptist Church High Point on June 6 & 7 1935. (See Annual Session brochure later in this Sourcebook)
21 members were present.
Elizabeth McMillan, who served as the state organizer for the organization gave an “organizers report.”
Lucille Moore reported 47 letters had been sent to nurses
11 local chapters held meetings in 1935.
A paper was given about successful surgical techniques.
Miss Mills talked on private duty nursing.
President Emeritus Broadfoot reported on Rosenwald funds which were being used to build several nurses homes at African American hospitals in NC, and to supply scholarships for African American nurses to get advanced training in northern nursing schools.
Mrs. J.D. Hawkins of Hendersonville gave a report.
Ruby Scarlett President
Elizabeth McMillan 1rst Vice President
Ethel Young - 2nd Vice President
B.E. Jackson Treasurer
E. Heilig - Secretary
Geneva Collins - Asst Secretary
Lorena B. Hill - Corresponding Secretary
Board of Directors - Anna Moorehead, E. Saffrit, B. Hayes, Anna Saunders, Mrs. Clifford Richardson
Presentations were given by:
Geneva Collins - Hospital Duty
Miss M.R. Searcy - Hospital Technique
Miss M.L. (Mary Lee) Mills - Private Duty nursing
Miss K. M. Long of the State [psychiatric] Hospital presented a case study
B.E. Jackson spoke about the supervision of hospitals
Ruby Scarlett gave a Presidential address and Carrie Broadfoot, president emeritus gave some remarks
Girlie Strickland public health nurse from Winston-Salem talked about public health nursing
Ruby Anderson, Edith Holmes and Geneva Collins Hunt were appointed to gather facts about the history of Negro nurses in North Carolina to be included in a history of nursing in North Carolina book being prepared by Mary Lewis Wyche.
No records were found for the 14th Annual Meeting in 1936.
The 15th Annual meeting was held in Charlotte on June 9, 1937
50 members were present
Ruby A.F. Woodbury Scarlett, President, gave a talk on a local radio station
Patty Carter of Durham gave a personal history talk “A pioneer of the state association”
A talk was delivered on the topic of “The Negro nurse and the Red Cross”
16th annual meeting was held on June 7, 1938 in the Tarboro High School
50 members attended the convention.
President Ruby Woodbury Scarlett announced she was moving to become a Supervisor at Prairie View State College in Prairie View, TX
Edith McNeill Holmes of Henderson gave the welcoming address.
Mabel Stamper, President of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses spoke at the meeting.
Elizabeth McMillan was elected to continue as the state organizer of the association. Blanche Sansom was named Relief Chairlady to see to the needs of the members of organization during the Great Depression
17th Annual Convention was held on June 17th, 1939 in Greensboro.
The Wilmington chapter had glasses fitted for every school child that needed them, and took “flowers and greetings” to the sick
The Raleigh chapter provided milk to underprivileged nursery school students.
New members attending the convention included:
Della Raney (Jackson) – later a distinguished and pioneer African American US Army nurse in WWII and beyond and Laura Chambers of Morganton
NOTE: In 1940 the NC Board of Nursing Examiners pass rate was for white test takers = 70% for African American test takers = 50%
NOTE: In 1940 there were 481 African American Registered Nurses in NC (474 women and 7 men) (Osborne, 1949, Journal of Negro Education, p. 264-369)
The 18th Annual Meeting was held in 1940 in Durham No minutes have been found.
The 19th Annual Convention was held June 11-12, 1941 at St. Agnes Hospital in Raleigh
Flora Blanchette, President of the Greensboro club, also known as the Adah B. Thoms Nurses Club. had 33 members. They took 15 baskets of food and clothes to the needy. The club also maintained a student loan fund. M.W. Evans was the Secretary of the club.
Lucille Zimmerman, President of the Raleigh Club reported they had a barn dance and a bridge tournament as fundraisers. The Raleigh club donated Christmas baskets to needy families at a local nursery school, donated $20 for a baby incubator for St. Agnes Hospital and gave a banquet for Mrs. Mabel Staupers, President of the National organization and for Mrs. Oxley (Mamie Hill Oxley was an early and active member of the Raleigh and the state organization. She moved to Washington, D.C. where her husband worked in President Roosevelt’s administration.)
Lucy Dillard, President of the Winston Salem chapter reported that the group made donations to the local milk and ice funds and the American Red Cross. The group took flowers to the sick children in the wards at Kate B. Reynolds Hospital.
Mary Simmons, president of the Wilmington chapter reported that they had an annual ball. The group donated flowers to the sick and made a donation to the American Red Cross. R.B. Smith was the chapter secretary.
Edith McNeill Holmes, a public health nurse in Tarboro, was President of District 9 from 1936-1941. There were 36 members in 1941. They "contributed to those in need" and sent flowers to shut-ins. Other nurses in District 9 included Gwendolyn Sykes and Miss Ellis. District 9 included Goldsboro, Wilson, Sanitorium, Fayetteville, Tarboro and Rocky Mount.
Carrie Early Broadfoot from District 9 and Sanitorium, NC won the national Mary Mahoney Award from the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses that year.
Miss Wall of the Charlotte club reported the group had 35 members. Louise Mason was the club President and Cora Stevenson was the club secretary.
Former President Scarlett had moved to Atlanta.
Miss Purdie was the Educational Director at Kate B. Reynolds Hospital.
Lucy Dillard was a public health nurse in Winston-Salem.
Mrs. Ellis was then in Wilson
Geneva Collins was then the Superintendent of L. Richardson Hospital in Greensboro
A brief memorial service was held for both Hallie French of Charlotte and Odessa Moore of Durham.
Others present were:
Heilig, Hill, Richardson, Jackson, Floretta Johnson, Mrs. Cowan, Henrietta Colvert (she was doing poorly), A.K. Brown, Mary Taylor and Anna Saunders.
Marion Seymour, Vice President of the NACGN spoke on the Negro Nurse and national defense.
Flora Wakefield, the white nursing supervisor of the Wake County Health Department gave a talk on public health nursing. She reported that white public health nurses earned $100-110 a month and African American public health nurses earned $75-90 a month. "This matter ended in heated discussion".
A.H. Moorehead and Salome Taylor were honored as charter members of the association.
Blanche Sansom, Elizabeth McMillan and A.H. Moorehead were appointed to draw up a letter asking for equalization of nursing salaries.
Student nurses from St Agnes, Kate B. Reynolds, Lincoln and Good Samaritan provided a forum on "Nursing in Diabetes Mellitus"
Mrs. Ellen Woods Carter of Wilson (she lived in NC only a short time) received the Mary Mahoney award the next year.
Officers elected for 1942 were
President - Geneva Collins,
Mary Gary (Rice) - Vice President
Edna I. Purdie - secretary to the President
D. Hussey - Corresponding secretary
Lucille Zimmerman - recording secretary
C.E. Richardson - Secretary
Edith McNeill - Treasurer
20th Annual Convention at held in Wilmington on June 10, 1942 at Community Hospital.
32 nurses were present.
Geneva Collins Hunt (Superintendent of L. Richardson) was elected President. Edith McNeill Holmes was elected Treasurer.
Salome Taylor gave the welcoming address.
It was announced that Edna I Purdie, the Educational Director of Kate B. Reynolds Hospital was elected president of the southeast region of the NACGN.
Mary Gary Rice resigned as Vice President since she was moving to the Bronx.
The National League for Nursing Education (NLNE) re-wrote its by-laws so any qualified nurse could join – before 1942, members had to be a member of ANA so most African American nurses were denied membership in the NLNE.
Attending were Mrs. Clifford Richardson, Mrs. Parker, L.E. Artis, Edna Purdie, Mabel Ellis, Annie M. Cowan, M. Smith, Rosa Lee Brown, V.M. Mitchell, Gwendolyn Sykes, Mary S. Powell, Rosa B. Smith, Lila Haywood and Mrs. Sellers.
Miss B.E. Jackson of Durham reported they had17 members and had sponsored several speakers during the year
Emma Evans. President of the Greensboro Chapter reported they had 19 members. Flora Blanchette (future president of the NCANRN and the Caribbean Association of Colored Graduate Nurses) was studying at NYU. The Chapter had helped send students to the Convention.
The Winston Salem chapter had given health talks on the radio during National Negro Health Week, contributed to the library at Kate B. Reynolds Hospital and donated to the British Ambulance Fund
It was announced that Ruth Feider was the Superintendent at St. Agnes, Beulah E. Jackson was the Acting Superintendent at Lincoln and Eutha K. Goins was the Director at the Morrison Training School in Hoffman, NC
There were 35 Negro Public Health Nurses in the state.
Mrs. Frank Avant led a memorial service for Miss Aggie Freeman.
21rst Annual Convention was held in Winston-Salem on June 9, 1943 at Kate B Reynolds Nurses Home
Estelle Massey Riddle of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN) addressed the convention.
Lt. Della Raney Jackson, pioneer African American US Army nurse came from Tuskegee and addressed the convention about Army nursing.
Elizabeth Jones, NACGN Field Secretary spoke the delegates about the goal of streamlining a merger between the white NCSNA and the African American NCANRN.
The 22nd Annual Convention was held in Charlotte on June 15, 1944
Flora Blanchette of L. Richardson Hospital in Greensboro was elected President for 1945.
Viyella Mitchell was elected recording Secretary for 1945.
Miss Eugenia Jones of the NACGN addressed the convention delegates.
Ruth Council addressed the convention.
Ruth Taylor spoke about wives of men in service.
NCACGN wrote NCNA asking for a merger of the two organizations.
Others present were: A.H. Moorehead, Cora Stevenson, Sadie Eaton, Strickland, Simmons, Richardson, Crisp, Gibson, Johnnie D. Hooper, Nora T. Allen, Mary Stratford, Lula Harris, Dunn, Clara B. Lawrence, Anderson, Steward, C. Craves, Thelma Cobb and Inez Bethel, President of the Edith Cavell Club in Winston-Salem, Viyella Mitchell, Lucinda White, V.C. Dudley, Jenny Washington, Catherine Bynum, Marjorie Wheeler, Virginia Dare Joyner, Mrs. F.D. Martin, Victoria Shepherd, E. Hickson, Mattie Donnell (Hicks), Pearl Parks, Cleo Young, Betty Broadhurst. Nora Thaxton, Manilla Shoffner, Lillie Forte Barber, Nora Allen,
A memorial service was held for Zelma Malone, a 1928 graduate of St. Agnes.
The Winston Salem chapter reported 42 members
The Charlotte chapter reported 34 members
The Greensboro Club reported 22 members.
There were also active chapters in Durham, Raleigh, District 9 and District 1.
The 23rd Annual Convention was held in Durham on June 22-23, 1945
32 members were present, Flora Blanchette presided
Pattie Carter, President of the local club, and Superintendent of Nurses at Lincoln Hospital, welcomed the attendees.
A memorial service was held for Carrie Early Broadfoot, founder and President Emeritus.
Active chapters and their presidents were:
District 9 - Elizabeth McMillan Thompson
District 1 - Anna Saunders
Winston-Salem - Lorena Hill
Greensboro - Martin
Charlotte - Cleo Young is the president and the chapter has 32 members -20 active members
Raleigh - Lula Harris
Durham - E.F. Hargrove has 15 members, 10 active members
Wilmington - Ada Cavell
Public Health nurses present were Mrs. F.D. Martin of Goldsboro, Girlie Strickland of Winston-Salem, Mattie Donnell (later Hicks and a Korean War Veteran) of Greensboro, M.D. Wheeler, Pearl Henderson of Durham, and Cleo Young of Charlotte.
Others present were Eason, Mebane, L. White, Julia R. Smith and L R Betts of Durham
Speakers were: Blanche Sansom of Charlotte on public health, Flora Blanchette - presidential address, and Mary Mills (Captain in the US Public Health Service overseas branch)
Amy Louise Fisher, a white nursing supervisor from the state Department of Public Health gave a talk on nursing issues before the state legislature.
The 24th Annual Convention was held at Fayetteville State College (now University) on June 21, 1946
42 members were present. Rosa Mai Godley was elected Vice President
Flora Blanchette had moved to the US Virgin Islands so Elizabeth McMillan Thompson was elected president.
Active chapters included District 9, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Charlotte, Durham, Wilmington, Raleigh, Asheville and High Point.
Attendees included: F.D. Martin, G.S. Carney, E.C. Dudley, Amanda Eason, Hazel Blake, Lydia Ruth Betts, Olga Cunningham of Asheville, and Verna Privott
WWII veterans and NCNRN members Hallie Mae Brown who served in Africa and Gwen Sykes Carney who served in England were honored.
NOTE: After 45 years, delegates to the 1947 NCSNA convention voted to remove the word “White” from its requirements for membership.
The 25th Annual Convention was held in Asheville on June 5-7, 1947 at Allen High School
32 members were present. Attendees included: E. Tart, E. Strickland, Helen Holmes, Rose Jones, Sellars, Helen Taylor, Miss G. Carter from Lexington.
Elizabeth McMillan Thompson – President
Mai Godley – Vice President
V. Mitchell - Recording Secretary
L.R. Betty - Corresponding Secretary
Gwendolyn Sykes Carney – Treasurer
M.D. Wheeler - Parliamentarian
The group was welcomed by Mrs. M. Bynum, R.N. - Superintendent of the Asheville Negro Hospital and Mattie Sears, President of the local chapter.
NOTE: January 9, 1948 – Edna Heinzerling, President of the white NCSNA met with Elizabeth Thompson, Mai Godley, Geneva Hunt, Lucille Williams, Lydia Betts, and G.K. Battle, officers and members of the Board of Directors of the NCNRN and asked them to submit a formal letter to the white NCSNA requesting to integrate the organization
The 26th Annual Meeting was held on June 24-26, 1948 at Bennett College in Greensboro
72 members present, Mrs. Alida Dailey of the NACGN attended the meeting.
Mamie Batchelor presided.
Nurses in Lexington formed a new city chapter of the NCANRN
New members included Houston, Greenlee and Cannady.
Blanche Hayes Sansom moved to dissolve the organization; the motion passed unanimously.
NOTE: On October 18, 1948 Delegates to the 1948 NCSNA Convention voted to merge with the NCANRN.
1949 -The NCANRN dissolved on May 13, 1949 and merged with the NCSNA.
Marie B. Noell, executive secretary of the NCSNA, praised the actions of the NCANRN, saying:
Since all citizens of North Carolina need adequate nursing care and since the professional nursing organizations are to a great degree responsible for such care. I believe the action taken this morning by the N.C. Association of Negro Registered Nurses, Inc. to dissolve its organization of 27 years standing and to associate itself wholly with the NC State Nurses’ Association will be a great asset in promoting nursing service for all North Carolinians.
Elizabeth M. Thompson, President of NCANRN in 1949 closed the last meeting of the organization with these words:
The final chapter has been written by the North Carolina Association of Negro Registered Nurses, Inc., but the activities of nurses and nursing must go on. As professional women, we all have a great part to play in furthering the progress and elevating the standards of this work. The integrating of the associations gives opportunity for great service, and by so doing, humanity will be better served.
Reflection on the merger:
The North Carolina State Nurse Association, in their pamphlet "Highlights in Nursing in North Carolina 1935-1976 recalled the merger this way:
The NCSNA Board of Directors voted to recommend that the Association admit black nurses to membership and issued such an invitation to the members of the North Carolina Association of Negro Registered Nurses, Inc. Black nurses discussed the invitation of their convention in June of that year and voted to make formal application for membership in NCSNA. In October the NCSNA House of Delegates approved the Board’s recommendation to admit black members. In June 1949, the Negro nurses voted unanimously to dissolve the North Carolina Association of Negro Registered Nurses.
Timeline of selected events after the merger of the NCANRN and the NCSNA
NOTE: The North Carolina State Nurses Association (NCSNA) changed its name to the North Carolina Nurse Association (NCNA) in the 1960s.
By 1949 African American nurses served in key positions in the American Nurses Association committees.
1950 – Mrs. Rosa Mai Godley, former VP of the NCANRN was one of the North Carolina representatives to the national ANA convention in San Francisco.
1951 – On January 26, 1951 the NACGN dissolved and merged with the ANA.
1962 – Dean Helen Sullivan Miller of North Carolina Central University is elected the first district president (District 11) in the North Carolina State Nurse Association.
1966 - Dean Helen Sullivan Miller of North Carolina Central University is appointed by Governor Dan Moore to a three-year term on the North Carolina State Board of Nursing.
1967 – Olla Mae Massey Carroll is the first BSN graduate from UNC-Chapel Hill School of Nursing and Donna Harris is the first Duke University School of Nursing graduate.
1987- Dr. Ernestine Small is elected the first African American president of the North Carolina Nurse Association.
2017 – Dr. Ernest Grant, RN, PhD of Black Mountain became the fist African American male President of the NCNA.
2019 - North Carolinian Dr. Ernest Grant was elected the first African American male president of the ANA.
BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF NCACGN/NCANRN MEMBERS
Brief Biographies of the 6 presidents of the organization
1923-1931 Carrie Early Broadfoot
1932-1934 Blanche Hayes Sansom
1934- 1941 Ruby Woodbury Scarlett Hilton
1942- 1944 Geneva Collins Hunt
1944- 1946 Flora Blanchette
1946- 1949 Elizabeth McMillan Thompson
Carrie Early Broadfoot – 1rst President of the NCACGN and 2016 NC Nursing Hall of
Carrie Early Broadfoot was born on June 13, 1870 in Lynchburg, Virginia. Virtually nothing is known about her young life until she entered Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital (FDMH) in Philadelphia, in the fall of 1896 graduating in its third class in 1899. After nine months of private duty nursing in Philadelphia she returned to FDMH as Head Nurse, a position she held for the next 5 years. In 1905, Broadfoot moved to Raleigh, NC where she served as Superintendent of Nurses at St. Agnes Hospital. St Agnes Hospital opened in 1896 and was the second hospital for African Americans in North Carolina (the first was Leonard Hospital which opened in 1885 on the campus of Shaw University in Raleigh). It was also the home to the first nursing program for African American women in the state. Broadfoot served for two years until her marriage to Thomas Broadfoot on June 30, 1908. He was a postal clerk on the railroads and lived in Fayetteville. After her marriage, she moved to Fayetteville and retired from active nursing practice until the first World War. When war was declared, Broadfoot joined the American Red Cross nursing service planning to go overseas to nurse the troops. Instead, she was directed to work at home to help control the influenza epidemic sweeping the country. Broadfoot worked as a private duty nurse in Fayetteville until 1923 when she took the dual positions of Nursing Supervisor of the Negro Division at the NC Sanatorium and Director of its new nursing school for African American women.
In addition to tending to her family and working full time, Broadfoot maintained involvement in the nursing profession. In 1921, she and four other North Carolina African American nurses attended a meeting of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses in Washington, DC. These five launched a state chapter of the organization. Broadfoot was the President for the first 8 years and remained active in the organization until she suffered a debilitating stroke in 1944. By that time, she was a widow and due to her stroke, she moved in with her sister in Roxbury, MA who cared for Broadfoot until her death in 1945.
Upon her retirement from the State Sanitarium, the Board of Directors passed the following resolution (from the June 1944 issue of the Sanatorium Sun, p.2)
"The Board of Directors of the North Carolina Sanatorium learns with deep regret of the sickness of Mrs. Carrie E. Broadfoot and desires to express their earnest wish for her speedy and complete recovery. For twenty years, Mrs. Broadfoot has been the Superintendent of Nurses of the Negro Division of the North Carolina Sanatorium and she has labored unceasingly and oftentimes at the expense of her health for the welfare of the institution. We were exceedingly fortunate in securing her services in the organization of the North Carolina Sanatorium Training School for Negro Nurses, the second Tuberculosis Training School in the United States. Her outstanding ability, splendid character and lofty ideals and her prestige as organizer of the Negro State Nurses Association of North Carolina in 1923 and as president for the first eight years and as recording secretary of the National Association of Negro Nurses have done much in establishing the Sanatorium and the Training School in the confidence of the Negroes over the State and in getting them to take advantage of the facilities offered for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. Be it resolved That the Board of Directors of the North Carolina Sanatorium express their appreciation for the outstanding services Mrs. Broadfoot has rendered the institution and the cause of tuberculosis in the state.
Carrie Earley Broadfoot passed away on January 8, 1945 in Roxbury and was buried in Fayetteville's Elmwood Cemetery alongside her husband. In 2016 she was inducted into the North Carolina Nurses Association Hall of Fame.
The New The New York Age New York, New York 11-24-1923 p. 3
Broadfoot is also mentioned in these newspaper articles:
The Lenoir News Topic, Lenoir, NC 12-18-1924, p. 9
The News and Observer, Raleigh, North Carolina 4-2-1935, p. 10, 5-9-1930, p. 8;
The Charlotte News 10-6-1932, p. 19
The Pittsburgh Courier 5-3-1930, p. 14
American Journal of Nursing Nursing News and Announcements. (1925). The American Journal of Nursing, 25(7), 602-628. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3409272
Blanche Catherine Hayes Sansom – 2nd President of the NCACGN 1932-1934
The Charlotte News 3-8-1934, p. 13
Blanche Catherine Hayes Sansom was born on February 28, 1890 in Maxton, NC to Frances and William P. Hayes, a Methodist Episcopal minister and member of the North Carolina General Assembly during Reconstruction. Her father drove a horse and buggy on his pastoral visits and often took Blanch with him. Through this, she became interested in helping the sick. She graduated from St. Agnes Hospital School of Nursing in 1910. Sansom began her nursing career as a private duty nurse in Maxton, living with her parents, but soon took a job on the Green River Plantation in Rutherfordton. There was not a doctor nearby so everyone on the plantation, both white and African American called on her for help when they were sick or injured. For four years she practiced a kind of public health nursing and health education in the area. In 1919 she went to Tarboro as a Red Cross nurse during the epidemic of Spanish flu that killed thousands in our state. In 1920 Sansom became the first African American school nurse in Charlotte. In 1928 Sansom took special training in public health, school nursing and nursing administration at Columbia University in New York City supported by the Rockefeller Foundation and the National Health Circle. She worked for the health department until her retirement in 1958.
Sansom joined the NCACGN at the second meeting in 1924. She was elected VP of the organization at that meeting. She was very active in the Charlotte Chapter as well as the state-wide organization. She spoke at conventions in 1924, 1925, 1945 and 1948. In 1938, Sansom was named Relief Chairlady to see to the needs of the members of organization during the Great Depression. In 1941 she wrote letters on behalf of the organization to state public health officials seeking the equalization of salaries for African American and White public health nurses.
In addition to her work in the schools, at the health department and in the NCANRN, Mrs. Sansom was active and held offices in the Charlotte Red Cross Chapter and in the NC Tuberculosis Association. Below are many tributes and articles about her extraordinary life and pioneering career.
This tribute to Nurse Sansom is on page 38 of the December 1959 Tar Heel Nurse.
Throughout the state recently several nurses have received plaudits and recognition in various ways from their own communities where they live and work. Because accomplishments of an individual nurse reflect honor on the entire profession, we believe all NCSNA members will be interested in the recognition which has come to these nurses.
`Mrs. Blanche Hayes Sansom recently retired after 39 years in public health nursing with the Charlotte Health Department and was the subject of a feature article in the Charlotte Observer. As senior nurse, Mrs. Sansom was supervisor of midwives and had charge of the birth control clinic. She was employed by the City of Charlotte in 1920 as its first full-time Negro school nurse.
On the day of her retirement, the City and County Health Departments paid tribute to her with a party, presents, and speeches. A former supervisor of public health nurses said of her: “While she climbed in status, she never lost contact with her people. She remained a true humanitarian.”
Mrs. Sansom sent to members of NCSNA a special message of appreciation for the cards and letters sent to her on her retirement and these gems of wisdom gleamed from nearly 40 years of nursing: “Patients are people; learn to listen – don’t talk too much; and don’t know everything.”
She is a graduate of St. Agnes Hospital School of Nursing, Raleigh, and had post-graduate work at Columbia University, North Carolina College, and the University of Michigan.
From: Coles, A.B. (1969). The Howard University School of Nursing in Historical Perspective. Journal of the National Medical Association 62(2), p. 105-118
The St. Agnes Hospital Training School for Nurses was established in 1895. It was under the care of physicians and was registered in the State of North Carolina. Some of its outstanding graduates include Blanche Catherine Hayes who graduated from the school in 1910. In August of that year, she was called to Rutherfordton, North Carolina on Green River Plantation to nurse an old colored Mammy. Miss Hayes found work on Green River Plantation very interesting. She was the only person with medical knowledge within 11 miles. Public health nursing was almost unknown in North Carolina at that time, but Miss Hayes did much educational work among the tenants of the plantation. She was later called to nurse the daughter of one governor-elect of North Carolina. In 1919 she did Red Cross nursing in Tarboro, North Carolina. In 1920 she was appointed to the school system in North Carolina as the first colored school nurse. In 1928 she was given a scholarship to do special work at Columbia University by the National Health Circle for Colored People.
From the 7th annual report of the North Carolina Sanatorium, 1920
$225.00 was used under the colored public health nursing appropriation to pay the salary of Blanche Hayes, a colored registered nurse attached to the Health Department of Edgecombe County, immediately under the direction and instruction of Miss Clara Ross, Public Health Nurse for Edgecombe County, for a period of three months. This enabled the Health Department to provide visiting nursing service for the colored patients during the influenza epidemic of last year. Financing this work was of a temporary nature and was done to demonstrate the usefulness of colored public health nursing and aid the county until funds could be secured to continue the work. Blanche Hayes is now on the staff of the Charlotte Health Department.
From the book Pathfinders by Adah Thoms (1985):
St. Agnes is well represented in the work of one of its outstanding graduates - Blanche Catherine Hayes. Miss Hayes, R.N. was born in Lumberton, N.C. Her father, William P. Hayes was a Methodist Episcopal minister with a family of 11 children. He owned a horse and buggy and when he went to make his pastoral calls it was always a great pleasure for Blanche to accompany him. It was during her childhood days while accompanying her father on his visits, especially to the sick, that she was inspired to become a nurse. In the fall of 1907 she entered St. Agnes Hospital, Raleigh, N.C. to begin her course in nursing. She was graduated from the school in 1910. She did private duty nursing a short while in her hometown, Maxton, N.C. In August 1910 she was called to Rutherfordton, N.C. on Green River Plantation to nurse an old colored Mammy who had nursed the Coxe family for forty years ... there was not a doctor within 11 miles and everyone on the Plantation, white or colored called the nurse for aid. Public health nursing was almost unknown in NC at that time but Miss Hayes did much educational work among the tenants of Green River Plantation. Four years were spent there ... After returning to her home for a week's rest she was called to nurse the daughter of Angus Wilton McLean who was then chairman of the Democratic Party of NC and later became governor of NC ... in 1919 she went to Tarboro NC to do Red Cross work. A generalized program was carried on there, touching the schools, city and county. The work was very hard in Tarboro as the people did not understand what a public health nurse meant to them and resented having her come into their homes … Another piece of work attempted was the training of midwives ... In 1920 she accepted a position as school nurse in Charlotte, N.C. the first colored nurse ever employed by the school system, so the entire work had to be organized.
Mrs. Sansom’s letter to the Editor of the Charlotte Observer 10-3-1963 p. 54
President Sansom is also mentioned in these newspaper clippings:
The Charlotte News 8-27-1920, p. 3; 3-4-1943, p. 20; 5-2-1949, p. 2; 10-12-1951, p. 21; 1-28-1942, p. 19;
The Charlotte Observer 11-7-1923, p. 5 (with photo); 1-8-1925, p. 12;4-9-1941, p. 8; 11-10-1938, p. 8; 11-6-1938, p 16; 2-1-1944, p. 19; 11-15-1955, p. 30;
The Afro American 10-17-1931 p.18
American Journal of Nursing Nursing News and Announcements. (1925). The American Journal of Nursing, 25(7), 602-628. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3409272
Ruby A.F. Woodbury Scarlett Hilton 3rd President of the NCANRN 1934-1941
Ruby A. F. Woodbury Scarlett Hilton, R.N., had a long and distinguished career in nursing education and practice. She was born in July 1895 in Georgetown, South Carolina to Frank and Chloe Woodbury. An article in the Pittsburgh Courier (1972) reports she graduated from the Hospital and Training School in Charleston, South Carolina (now known as McClellan's Hospital). Woodbury founded and operated the first hospital in her hometown, Georgetown, South Carolina. Subsequently, she served as Director of Nurses at the Arthur B. Lee Hospital in Summerville, S.C., and according to the 1920 U.S. Census, by age 25, she was the Head Nurse at the Good Samaritan Hospital and Training School in Columbia, South Carolina. By 1928, Woodbury was the Superintendent at Blue Ridge Hospital and Training School in Asheville. In 1930, after Blue Ridge Hospital closed at the beginning of the Great Depression, she accepted the Superintendency at L. Richardson Hospital in Greensboro, North Carolina. Woodbury oversaw both the hospital and the nursing school there. She met and married a local Greensboro physician, Dr. Henry Clay Scarlett who tragically died in a car wreck in 1940. Mrs. Scarlett was instrumental in getting the hospital accredited, and in securing funds from the Rosenwald Foundation for the construction of a new Nurses Home for the nurses and student nurses working at the hospital (Elkins, 1969). Scarlett was very active in the state and national Associations of Colored Graduate Nurses, serving as the regional president for the area covering Greensboro, High Point, and Winston Salem, North Carolina from 1929 through 1937. She was elected President of the North Carolina State Association of Negro Registered Nurses in 1934 and served until she was widowed and left the state in 1941. Following her service at L. Richardson Hospital, she served as Director of Nurses at Prairie View College Hospital and Training School in Prairie View, Texas. Subsequently, she was named Dean of Women and School Nurse at Kittrell College in Kittrell, North Carolina. From there she moved to New York City and worked at the Kingsbridge Jewish Medical Center for over twenty years. After moving to New York City in the 1940s, she did academic work in methods of teaching in hospital administration and ward management at Harlem Hospital and New York University.
Woodbury-Scarlett joined the NCACGN in 1928 while she was in Asheville. By 1930 she was the President of the Greensboro chapter. In 1933 she served as the Vice President of the state wide organization was elected President the next year. Scarlett attended every convention between 1930 and 1938 and spoke at the conventions in 1930, 1935 and 1937.
While she was living in New York, she married Mr. Hilton. She was honored at a bi-racial banquet commemorating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the NCSNA in 1952. Her life’s work showed consistent attention to advancing her skills, working to improve the health of her community and advancing the nursing profession.
The New York Age, NY, NY 11-8-1952 p. 18
American Journal of Nursing, July 1932
Geneva Sitrena Collins Hunt 4th President of the NCANRN 1942-1944
The Future Outlook, Greensboro, NC 6-13-42, p.5
Geneva Collins Hunt was born on January 22, 1907 in Asheville. In 1929 she graduated from the St. Agnes Hospital School of Nursing and was Assistant Superintendent there from 1929-1933. In 1934, she received a Rosenwald Scholarship to study hospital administration at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD. For thirteen years, from 1935 to 1948 she was Director of Nursing at L. Richardson Hospital in Greensboro, NC.
Hunt attended her first meeting of the NCACGN in 1930 and by 1934 was the Assistant Secretary of the Raleigh Chapter. In 1935 she gave a presentation at the Convention of “Hospital Duty”. In 1942 she was elected President of the state organization and served for two years until she joined the Army Nurse Corps and moved to Washington, D.C. In 1944 she was elected President of the Southeastern Region of the national association.
In 1949 she became a 1rst Lt in the US Army Nurse Corps at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C and later was in supervisory positions in Norfolk, Philadelphia and Welfare Island, NY.
From her Obituary:
Mrs. Hunt was the daughter of the late Will Greenlee and the late Mrs. Nellie Collins Harper. She was the widow of the late Rev. Jesse A. Hunt, former pastor of Grace Lutheran Church. She was a graduate of the 1925 class of Stephens-Lee High School. She graduated from Saint Agnes Hospital, Saint Augustine College in Raleigh. She received a Julius Rosenwald Scholarship to attend the University of Maryland School of Hospital Administration. She later interned at Providence and John Hopkins Hospitals in Baltimore. She attended the Nun Occasions Hospital Administrators School, University of Chicago. Her varied nursing career included supervisor of nurses for the Department of Hospitals for New York City; supervisor and nurse-in-charge of the Lucian Moss Home for the Chronically Ill; Albert Einstein Medical Center, northern division, Philadelphia; director of nurses, Norfolk Community Hospital, Norfolk, Va.; assistant superintended at Saint Agnes Hospital, Raleigh; and superintendent and director of Nursing School at the L. Richardson Hospital, Greensboro. She joined the Army Nurses Corps and served her tour of duty as a first lieutenant at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C. She was licensed professionally in eight states, was a past president of the N.C. Black Nurses Association, past treasurer of the Tri-State Professional Nurses Association. She was listed as an outstanding and distinguished American in the 1971 edition of Community Leaders of America.
Flora Blanchette 5th President 1945-1946
The Future Outlook, Greensboro, NC 6-13-42, p.5
Flora Lenore Blanchette of Greensboro was elected President of the NCANRN in 1945. She was born on September 25, 1899 in Basseterre on the island of St. Kitts in the Caribbean to Charles Bernard and Ada Emmaline Blanchette. Shortly after immigrating to the Unites States in 1923 she moved to Greensboro, North Carolina to enroll in the L. Richardson Memorial Hospital (LRMH) nursing school. After graduating in 1926, she worked at the hospital as a registered nurse. In 1939 she became a nursing supervisor at LRMH and then was promoted to the position of educational director at the LRMH Nursing School in 1941.
After World War II, Governor William Hasties of the American Virgin Islands appointed Blanchette to the position of the Director of Nursing Education on the island of St. Croix. She began her new duties in January of 1948. By 1950 she had organized and been elected President of the NACGN Virgin Island Chapter
The New York Age Jan 10, 1948, p. 4
The minutes of the NCANRN first mention Blanchette in 1941 when she was listed as President of the Greensboro chapter. Only four years later, in 1945 she was elected President of the state wide organization. She stepped down in 1946 to assume her new duties in the American Virgin Islands.
This article in the American Journal of Nursing mentions her:
Nursing in the Virgin Islands. (1951). The American Journal of Nursing, 51(12), 705-706. doi:10.2307/3468051
Elizabeth McMillan Thompson 6th President of the NCANRN 1946-1949
From the book: Fayetteville, North Carolina By Fred Whitted published by Arcadia Press in 2000.
Mary Elizabeth McMillan Thompson was born on September 29, 1908, in Tarboro, North Carolina to Dr. A.S. and Viola Thompson. She attended Shaw University in Raleigh, and in 1929, graduated with a B.S. in nursing from Freedman’s Hospital in Washington, D.C. Through her alumna association she was a long-time member of the American Nurse Association and the National League for Nursing Education. A year later, she obtained a public health nursing certificate from Howard University. In 1931 she began working for the Cumberland County Health Department and stayed there for thirty-eight years. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, she worked simultaneously at the Health Department and at Fayetteville State Normal School (now Fayetteville State University) as the college nurse. The university bartered room and board for nursing services. Thompson helped to organize the Midwife Institutes held at Fayetteville State University in the 1930s. She became president of the NCANRN in 1946 and served until the merge with the NCSNA in 1949. She married Luther Thompson in 1941 and adopted a daughter in 1959. She died on April 27, 1982.
Thompson or “Nurse Mac” as she was commonly known, joined the NCANRN in 1933, and by 1945 she was President of District 9 local chapter. A year later she was elected President of the state wide organization. Her pivotal thre- year term ended with the merger with the formerly all- white NCSNA.
An oral history interview with Elizabeth McMillan Thompson can be found at: https://archive.org/details/ElizabethMcMillanThompson
She was named Woman of the Year in Cumberland County, NC in 1956. An article about this event was published in The Carolinian, Raleigh, NC 3-10-1956, p. 1
This section is comprised of brief, available biographical information about the most active nurses and officers mentioned in the minutes of the North Carolina Association of Colored Graduate/Negro Registered Nurses 1920-1949 (no information could be found for a few of the nurses)
LHSON = Lincoln Hospital School of Nursing in Durham
NCBON= North Carolina Board of Nursing
SAHSON = St. Agnes Hospital School of Nursing in Raleigh
Mrs. Edith B. Anderson was from Durham. She graduated in 1937 from SAHSON. Anderson was the Operating Room nurse manager at St. Agnes from 1939 through the 1940s. She attended the organizational meeting in Winston-Salem in 1923 and spoke on Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Duty Nursing. The last name Anderson also appears in the minutes of 1928 and 1944.
Elizabeth Bailey was from Raleigh. She graduated from LHSON and passed the NCBON exam in 1918. She attended the first meeting of the NCACGN in Winston-Salem in January 1923. She also attended conventions in 1930 and 1931. She worked in Raleigh.
Mamie Batchelor was born around 1910. She passed the NCBON exam in 1936. The 1940 census lists her as the Head Nurse at L Richardson Hospital in Greensboro. In 1948 she presided at the 26th Annual Convention in Greensboro and was elected as assistant recording secretary of the southeastern region of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses.
Birdie Lee Beatty was from Chapel Hill. She graduated from Good Samaritan Hospital School of Nursing in Charlotte and passed the NCBON examination in 1922. She was elected Treasurer of the Charlotte chapter of the NCACGN in 1935 and 1936. She worked at the Charlotte City Health Department in the 1920s and 1930s.
Gertrude (E. E.) Blackman was from Charlotte and worked at Good Samaritan Hospital. At the 15th Annual/1937 NCACGN Convention she gave a talk on “Laboratory Technique”. Blackman was elected Vice President of the Charlotte Chapter (also called the Florence Nightingale Club) in 1925.
Lovie Elizabeth Booker was from Greensboro. She both graduated from SAHSON and passed the state boards in 1918. She attended the 1924 and 1926 NACGN conventions.
Carrie Earley Broadfoot – See Presidential biographies
Annie Keith Brown was a graduate of Dixie Hospital in Hampton Virginia. She passed the NCBON exam in 1922 and worked in Winston-Salem. She attended the first meeting in NC in 1923 in Winston-Salem. She served on the publicity committee in 1924 and the executive committee in 1929 before she served as Vice President of the state association from 1928 - 1932.
Olise Louise Campbell was born on October 10 1902 in Brunswick GA. She graduated from SAHSON and passed the state boards in 1928. The 1930 census show Campbell's working at St. Agnes Hospital where she served as Superintendent of Nurses. She joined the NCACGN in 1929 and gave a talk at the 1929 convention about upgrades at St. Agnes Hospital. Campbell later moved to Savannah GA and held positions as a public health nurse and then instructor and Superintendent at Charity Hospital in Savannah. She later worked for the Georgia Tuberculosis Advisory Committee and worked for a short time with the West Virginia Tuberculosis and Health Association Negro Division. She was elected President of the Georgia Association of Negro Registered Nurses. Campbell died in Savannah 1984.
Alice Rebecca Lomax (Carper Teller) was born on December 11, 1914 in Durham and died on November 18, 1996. She was elected secretary of the Wilmington chapter in 1931.
Patricia (Pattie) H. Carter was born in 1875 and was the daughter of Hawkins W. Carter who served Warren County as a representative and state senator during the Reconstruction era. She obtained her education from Shaw University, St. Agnes Hospital and Lincoln Hospital in New York City. She graduated from the SAHSON in 1909 and two years later became the Superintendent of Nurses at Lincoln Hospital in Durham NC. She was registered via a waiver in 1918. From 1911-1935 her title was Superintendent of Nursing Services and the Nurse Training School. From 1935- 1947 she was promoted to Assistant Superintendent of the hospital. During her 37 years at Lincoln, she served in nearly every leadership capacity. She was known to prepare meals in the kitchen, dispense medicines from the pharmacy, mop floors and help out where needed. In 1927, William K. Boyd in The Scalpel attributed the success of the institution to her dedication and countless hours of work. From “A record of 50 years, 1867-1917’ St. Augustine College
She was elected President of the Durham Chapter in 1926 and served in that capacity again in 1946. She gave a talk about the history of the organization at the 1937 convention. She died in 1950 in Durham at age 75.
Lois Rice (?Mrs. HB) Cunningham was a graduate of Blue Ridge Hospital School of Nursing in Asheville NC she passed the state boards in 1929. She attended the first meeting in 1923 in Winston-Salem and was elected as first Vice President of the state organization but had to give it up the next year due to not being an RN. She was vice president of the Winston-Salem chapter in 1924 and she gave a talk at the 1925 NCACGN meeting in Durham.
Eula Mae Julia David graduated from LHSON in 1919 and passed state boards in 1920. She attended the 3rd and 4th Annual Conventions in 1925 and 1926.
Lucy A. Dillard was from Winston- Salem. She both graduated from SAHSON and passed state boards 1923. She attended the organizational meeting in 1923 in Winston-Salem. She spoke on School Nursing at the 5th Convention in 1927. She served as an assistant or corresponding secretary of the state organization from 1927-1932.
Eunice Douglas Heilig was from Concord. In 1922 she both graduated from Good Samaritan Hospital in Charlotte and passed the state boards. By 1924 she was a public health nurse in Charlotte. She was elected Treasurer of the state organization in 1925 and gave talk on “Communicable Diseases” at the 1925 meeting. She was elected to the state executive committee in 1929. In 1935 she was elected as the recorder of the local club and was the contact person for the 1931 and 1937 NCANRN Conventions. She is mentioned in the following articles in the Charlotte Observer: Feb 12, 1924 p. 9, Oct 12, 1927 p 11, May 30, 1922, p. 7, Jan 8, 1925, p. 12, May 29, 1922 p.5, Jan 22, 1928 p. 28.
Sadie E. Eaton lived and worked in Raleigh. She graduated from Freedman’s Hospital in Washington, DC in 1912. She passed the NCBON exams in 1917. In 1923 she was the Entertainment President of Raleigh group which held the state -wide meeting that year. She spoke on “The nurse and pneumonia” in 1926. She attended annual meetings in 1930, 1937 and 1944. She was both a private duty nurse in Raleigh and she worked for the city health department 1937- 1944. In 1944, she became the nurse for Shaw University The News and Observer Raleigh, North Carolina 11-17-1937, p.16; 10-22- 1939, p. 29; 9-7-1944, p. 7; 10-18-1944, p. 8; 5-21, 1953, p. 29
Mabel Weaver Ellis (Taylor) was born on September 10, 1902 and died on February 8, 1995 in Wilson. She joined the organization in 1934 and attended annual meetings in 1934 and 1942. She was a school nurse in Wilson and was remembered this way:
“A nurse would come there, one of the county nurses, Mable Ellis, and when everybody would see her coming, they would know she was coming to give a shot.
Emma R. Evans was born in 1895 in Georgia. She was President of the Greensboro chapter of the NCACGN in 1926. She led a discussion about private duty nursing at the 1929 annual session. She was the Assistant Secretary of the state organization in 1931. The 1930 and 1940 censuses show her working as a city nurse (public health nurse) in Greensboro.
Charlotte Hall McQueen Faison graduated from SAHSON in 1914 and passed state boards the same year. She attended the 1921 NACGN Annual Convention in Washington DC where she was at the founding meeting of the NCACGN. She worked in Rocky Mount, Wilson and Fayetteville. She was elected to the state executive committee in 1929 and as the corresponding secretary of the group in 1931. In 1933 she and Carrie Broadfoot compiled a list from county clerk of court files of the African American Registered Nurses in NC. In 1943 she worked for a federal program to improve the health of migrant farm workers, managed by the Farm Security Administration called the Seaboard Agricultural Workers Health Association. She may have worked there through 1947 when the program closed.
Henrietta Alline Foster (Mebane) was born on August 4, 1901 to Walter and Nettie Young Foster in Wilson or Tarboro. She graduated from LHSON and the NCBON exams in 1921. She attended the organizational meeting of the NCACGN in 1921 and the annual conventions in 1924 and 1926. The 1930 census places her as a trained nurse in a hospital in Wilson. The 1940 census shows her nursing in Tarboro. She married Rev John A Mebane and died on June 2, 1950
Hallie French The1920 census shows her at 30 years old living with her sister Mary and both of them working as nurses in a hospital (presumably Good Samaritan). She spoke on a panel about public health nursing at the 1925 Convention. In 1926 she was the president of the Charlotte Chapter/ Florence Nightingale Club in Charlotte. A brief memorial service was held for her at the 1941 convention.
Rosa Mai Godley
was from Charlotte. In 1948 she was elected VP of the Southeastern region of NACGN and VP f the state-wide organization. That same year, she was one of the African American nurses to meet with white nurses to negotiate the merger of the two state nursing associations. From the 1942 “Pioneer’ the yearbook of St Agnes Hospital School of Nursing:
“Director of the School of Nursing: Mrs. Rosa May Godley, R.N. who hails from Harlem School
of Nursing, New York City, and has hopes of raising the curriculum and the nursing technique of
St. Agnes to equal that of Harlem School of Nursing. Where the nursing profession is concerned, she knows the answers for she is a Twentieth Century Florence Nightingale.” By 1949 she wasthe Director of Nursing at the Good Samaritan Hosptial in Charlotte.
She is mentioned in the following newspaper articles among many others:
New York Times article : June 8, 1973, p. 43, American Journal of Nursing, January, 1941, The New York Age Nov 16, 1940, p. 2, The Charlotte News, April 22, 1949, p. 11, The Charlotte Observer Sept 4, 1949, p. 19, Raleigh News and Observer: May 5, 1950, p.6, June 6, 1942, p. 12, December 13, 1943, p. 2,
Mary Elizabeth Gary was from Portsmouth, Virginia. She was a graduate of SAHSON and passed the state boards in 1931 She taught at LHSON in 1937. In 1938 she became the Operating Room supervisor at L. Richardson Hospital in Greensboro. She was elected President of the Durham Chapter in 1941 and VP of the state-wide organization in 1942. She moved to the Bronx in 1942.
Flora Gray attended and gave a presentation at the first NC meeting in Winston-Salem in 1923. She also sang the opening song at the 1928 convention.
Maggie McAdams Greenlee was from Due West, SC and graduated from McVicar Hospital in Atlanta. She passed the state boards in 1922 and became a public health nurse in Asheville in 1923. She taught the American Red Cross Home nursing course to African Americans in western North Carolina. When she died in a car wreck in 1957, she was honored in the Asheville Citizen Times newspaper. See Asheville Citizen-Times (ACT) 10-5-57, p. 4 and ACT 1-5-38, p. 14
Leonora Sarah Hargrave (sometimes Sarah Leonora) was born on March 28, 1888 in Wilmington. Hargrave graduated from Freedman's Hospital in Washington, D.C. in 1903. She returned to Wilmington and was a private duty nurse (The Wilmington Morning Star 22 Sep 1915, Page 8). At the 4th annual meeting of the NACGN in 1912 in Washington, DC, Hargrave gave a paper on “Feeding the sick”. In 1915 she was elected Secretary of NAGGN at its 8th convention in Raleigh. She was re-elected to the position in 1916. The 1919-1920 Bulletin of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College lists Hargrave as a faculty member teaching "Nurse Training". By 1921 she was working as a Blue Circle Nurse in Fort Valley, Georgia. The 1930 census shows Hargrave was working as a school nurse in Wilmington, NC. She attended the 1931 Annual Convention of the NCACGN in Wilmington. She died on February 11, 1970.
Newspaper clippings about her include: The New York Age 07 May 1921, Page 11 and The New York Age 14 Jan 1922, p. 7 The New York Age 8-6-1921, p. 8
Wilmington Morning Star 9-22-1915, p. 8, New York Age, 4-2, 1921 p 6
Annie E. Harrell was born in VA circa 1890. She graduated from SAHSON in 1916 and worked there for many years. She was elected President of the Raleigh Chapter and served as Secretary of the state organization in 1929. The 1930 census shows her at the Negro Division of the State Sanitarium. By 1935 she was at Seaview Hospital (a TB hospital) in New York City.
Mildred Haygood. In 1933 Haygood graduated from LHSON and passed state boards. She was a public health nurse in Charlotte. In 1935 she was elected president of the Charlotte Chapter.
Lila Gillians Haywood was from Goldsboro. She graduated from SAHSON and passed state boards in 1922. She worked as the Operating Room supervisor at St Agnes. She was active in the Raleigh Chapter and attended at least 4 state wide conventions. She was also very active in American Red Cross programs.
Pearl Henderson was from Durham. She was born around 1899. The 1910 census shows her living at Lincoln Hospital in Durham. She graduated from LHSON in 1911 and soon began a career as a public health nurse in Durham. She attended the 1925 meeting and was elected to the statewide finance committee. The next year she is listed as the president of the Durham Chapter. In 1931 she was elected to the state wide executive committee. In the 1940 census she is listed as a head of household, living alone and being employed as a city public health nurse.
Rebecca Clotilde Hennie was born on in Jamaica, West Indies around 1901. She came to the US in 1920 to attend nursing school. She both graduated from SAHSON and passed boards in 1926. She was a school nurse at St. Mary's College in Raleigh and worked at Good Samaritan Hospital in Charlotte. She joined the NCACGN in 1927 and gave a talk that year about Sexually Transmitted Diseases. By 1929, she was the Head Nurse of the Good Shepherd Hospital in New Bern which was supported by the Episcopal church. In the 1939 Journal of the 56th Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, page 46 states "Miss Hennie, our United Thanks Offering nurse who serves as Superintendent is handling her difficult job well, and will study at New York University for six weeks this summer”.
She became a US Citizen in 1935. She served in the Army Nurse Corps in WWII. After the war she earned her BS in Nursing in New York City and then held several jobs in the north. She was honored at a luncheon in 1953 which is described in this newspaper article: The New York Age 13 Jun 1953, Page 20. Other articles from the New York Age have information or photos of nurse Hennie and include: 21 Nov 1959, Page 10, February 12, 1955, p. 8, January28, 1956 p. 20, January 24, 1959, p. 5. She died in 1980.
Mary E. Henry was from Wadesboro. She graduated from LHSON and passed state boards in 1921. She attended the 1925 convention and was elected President of the Winston-Salem chapter in 1926.
Ruby A.F. Woodbury Scarlett Hilton See Presidents biographies.
Versie Hobbs was a 1926 graduate of SAHSON. She was from Princeton NC. She was the secretary-treasurer of the Raleigh Chapter in 1930. In 1933 she worked at the state psychiatric hospital in Goldsboro now called Cherry Hospital.
Mary E. Fisher Holt was from High Point. She spoke at the 1927 convention and was named State Organizer in 1929 -1931. She graduated from SAHSON and passed boards in 1926.
Geneva Sitrena Collins Hunt See Presidents biographies
Beulah E. Jackson (Porter) was born in Tennessee around 1903. She graduated from Grady Hospital School of Nursing in Atlanta and moved to Durham to work at Lincoln Hospital. The 1930 census lists her as a head nurse at Lincoln. She served as Secretary of the NCANRN in 1933 and 1934, and as state wide Treasurer in 1935. In 1935 she gave a talk on hospital supervision. In 1942 she was the Acting Superintendent at Lincoln and she reported on the Durham Chapter at the convention.
Della Hayden Raney Jackson joined the NCANRN in 1940 while working at Lincoln Hospital in Durham, but soon became a pioneer US Army Nurse. Nurse Della Hayden Raney Jackson was born in Suffolk, Virginia on January 10, 1912, the 4th of twelve children born to George H and Willie V. Raney. She graduated from LHSON in 1937. After graduation, she worked as the operating room supervisor at Lincoln Hospital. When the United States entered World War II, Nurse Raney was anxious to serve her country and applied for a position in the Army Nurse Corps. Initially her application was denied due to her race. Despite this rejection, Nurse Raney persisted in her efforts to become an Army nurse. A nurse needed the endorsement of the American Red Cross to be considered for military service. She wrote in 1983:
“When I entered nursing more than forty years ago, it was serious business with me. It was a commitment to give my life for a cause – that of caring for those who were ill … It was this strong desire to elevate my profession that led me to volunteer for military service in 1940 with the U.S. Army Nurse Corps. Getting accepted by the Red Cross was difficult for graduates of
black schools of nursing in the south, but I persisted in overcoming this barrier to the point of writing Miss Mary Beard, who at that time was director of nursing for the American Red Cross, telling her of my desire to serve my country and practice my profession. Miss Beard replied with my membership card, certificate and pin.
Nurse Raney’s determination paid off. In April, 1941 she became the first African American nurse accepted into the US Army Nurse Corps, at the rank of 2nd Lieutenant.
The Pittsburgh Courier Apr 21, 1945 · Page 10
Lottie R. Jackson Graduated from Frederick Douglas Hospital in Philadelphia and passed the NCBON exams in 1918. She worked at Leonard Hospital on the campus of Shaw University in Raleigh before becoming the Superintendent of Nurses at St. Agnes Hospital in 1915. She organized and hosted the 8th Annual Convention of NACGN in Raleigh (“Of Interest to Nurses” JNMA 7(4) p 326). During the 1918 flu pandemic, Jackson was the head nurse of the Red Cross Emergency Hospital (Colored) in Raleigh at the Washington School. In 1920 she served on the nominating committee NACGN (Thomas, S., 1920, “Nursing Section” JNMA 12(4) p 71).
Katie Tiney Corbett Jenkins graduated from LHSON in 1916. She passed boards in 1919. She attended the first meeting of the NCACGN in 1923 and attended the 1925 convention. In 1926 she was the secretary of the Durham chapter of the NCACGN. Later she worked in Greensboro.
Addie E. Lane graduated from Dixie Hospital in Virginia and passed the NC state boards in 1917. She was the President of the Raleigh chapter in 1926 and worked as a public health nurse through the Associated Charities in Raleigh in the 1920s and 1930s.
Julia A. Latta was born in 1867 in Hillsboro and was the sole graduate of SAHSON in 1900. In 1901 she was hired as a nurse at the new Lincoln Hospital in Durham and soon became the Matron there. In 1903, she was one of two employees - the other was the janitor. She took care of patients, cooked the meals, did the laundry and did whatever else was necessary to keep the hospital running. In the same year, 1901, she opened a nurse training program. During her tenure as the Head Nurse of Lincoln, 1903-1911, 17 nurses graduated from the program. After she left Lincoln she became Durham's first African American public health nurse in July, 1915, (Durham Morning Herald, 11-21-1915, p. 8, 3-7-1916, 4-27-16, p. 10, p.7, 7-11-1917, p.7, 5-9-1917, p. 5, 3-4-1919, p. 7, 11- 30 - 1921, p. 6 and many more). She later worked for the American Tobacco Company (Durham Morning Herald, 11-11-1920, p.9) as an industrial nurse. and by 1920 she was hired by the American Red Cross, the first African American Red Cross nurse in NC. At the 4th annual NACGN meeting in 1912 in Washington, DC, Latta spoke on “How can the Association be made beneficial to its members” as well as another talk on “Nursing ethics”. At the 1916 meeting in New York City Latta “presented a very spicy paper" on “Public health nursing and sanitation in the south”. At the first Annual Convention in Raleigh in 1923 she was elected Vice President of the organization and was chosen to represent the group at the NACGN convention that year. In 1925 she served on both the executive committee and the finance committee.
In 1925, Latta married Lewis Tinnin, who was also born in Hillsboro, into slavery in 1860, but was residing/working in Chicago at the time of their marriage. She moved to Chicago with her new husband. The 1930 census shows they were living in Los Angeles. However, she died in Chicago on August 31, 1939 and was buried there. She never had any children.
Effie C. Wortham Lytle was born around 1869 in Raleigh to Samuel and Annie Wortham. She was one of the first two African American nurses to be educated in North Carolina, she was in first class at SAHSON and graduated in 1898. She worked as a private duty nurse in Raleigh until she married William H. Lytle on 12-12-1905. With him she moved to Granville County and was the nurse at the state supported Oxford Orphanage for many years. She died 9-16-1951 probably while visiting her sister in Philadelphia.
Mary Elizabeth McMillan (Thompson). See Presidents biographies
Edith Corrine MacNeill (Holmes) was born in 1905 and grew up in Clarkton, North Carolina. She graduated from the SAHSON in 1923. She worked at a doctor’s office before joining the Halifax County Health Department in 1924. She began working in midwife supervision the following year and trained all 75 midwives in her county. She retired in 1964. There is a piece about her in the Tar Heel Nurse June 1964, p.35.
In a 1980 interview with Jane Plyler, https://archive.org/details/EdithMacNeilHolmes Holmes discusses her childhood, family background, and education, and work as a public health nurse. She attended the convention in 1928, gave a talk about maternal/child health at the 1934 National convention and gave a welcoming address at the state 1938 convention. She was the president of District 9 from 1936-1941.
Ella Louise Mason was from Richmond, VA and as an adult she lived and worked in Charlotte. She both graduated from LHSON and passed state boards 1924. She presented a talk at the 1929 annual session on private duty nursing. She gave a talk at the 15th Annual Convention (1937) on “Nurses experiences in the flood areas”. She was the Recorder of Charlotte Chapter in 1925 and president of the Charlotte chapter in 1941. Nurse Mason was a part of a Civil Deference Medical Unit during WWII. She is mentioned in the following newspaper items in the Charlotte Observer
Feb 7, 1937, p 15; Jan 7, 1948, P 10, Feb 7, 1937, P 15, Aug 9, 1935, P13, Oct 27, 1931 p. 11, Feb 18, 1937, p. 12, Jan 14, 1942 P 1 and 15, Jan 8, 1925, p. 12, Nov 6, 1938 p. 16, May 3, 1950 p. 7, Jan 5, 1939 p.21, August 8, 1935, p.3.
Eva Louise Mathews graduated from Good Samaritan Hospital in Charlotte and passed state boards in 1922. She lived and worked in Charlotte. She was secretary of the Charlotte Chapter in 1926 and was elected to the state executive committee in 1929.
Elizabeth Miller was the Superintendent of Nurses at Good Samaritan Hospital in Charlotte, circa 1913-1925. In 1913 she gave a talk on "Nursing as a profession in America". In 1920 she served as the Auditing Chairman of the NACGN. More information about her can be found in an article titled "Lynching at Hospital" in the August 26 1913 Charlotte Observer p. 2 and in the April 1920 issue of the Journal of the National Medical Association. JNMA. She received her NC Registration through reciprocity with Pennsylvania in 1922. At the 13th Annual Convention in 1920 of the National organization, she was elected as Chair of the Nominating committee. In 1924 at the 2nd Annual State meeting, she joined the publicity committee. At the 3rd annual state meeting she spoke on private duty nursing. She attended the 4th annual convention and spoke about Good Samaritan Hospital at the 7th annual state convention in 1929. See these articles in the Charlotte Observer: 21 Jun 1925, Page 5, 20 Jul 1915, p. 2,
Capt. Mary Lee Mills, MSN, MPH, RN, CNM was born in Watha in Pender County. She graduated from LHSON and passed state boards in 1934. She joined the NCANRN in 1935 and gave a talk on private duty nursing at the 1935 convention. Mills left North Carolina to continue her education in New York City. She earned a midwifery certificate from Lobenstein School of Midwifery, a master's and bachelor's from New York University and graduated from George Washington University with a graduate certificate in health care administration. She returned to North Carolina to practice midwifery and then to stat the public health certificate program at NCCU for African American nurses. She gave a talk at the 1945 convention. just before she joined the US Public Health Service and spent decades serving patients in Lebanon, Viet Nam and Cambodia before retiring back to Pender County.
Nannie Lucille Moore lived in High Point. She graduated from Good Samaritan and passed the NCBON exam 1932. In 1937 she sent letters to 47 nurses across the state telling them about the work of the NCANRN. She is mention in an article in The Charlotte Observer May 29, 1932 p. 9
Anna H. Moorehead from Winston- Salem. was a founding member of the organization in 1923. She was elected the first Vice President but she had not passed the state board of nursing examinations so she was replaced the following year by Julia Latta. She was appointed as a state organizer for the NCANRN in 1929 -1931. She spoke on different aspects of public health nursing at the conventions in 1923, 1931, 1934. She served on the Board of Directors from 1930-1935. She was active during the merger with the white NCSNA in the late 1940s. Moorehead was honored as a “Charter Member” at the 1941 convention.
Lillyn P. Newsome was a public health nurse in New Bern. She attended meetings of the NCACGN in 1927-1930. At the 1929 NCACGN convention she and Mrs. Nellie McKenzie Sanders of Charlotte gave a talk on “Maternity, Infancy, Nursing and Control of epidemics”. She was President of the New Bern Chapter in 1930.
Mamie E. Hill (Mrs. L.A.) Oxley – Graduated from St. Agnes in 1909 and worked in Raleigh as a public health nurse (at least 1921-1931). In 1924 Oxley was elected Secretary of the Raleigh Chapter (the Edith Cavell Club) of the NCACGN. In 1927, she and Mrs. Freedland Price of Durham gave a talk on the “Rural aspects of Public Health Nursing". She was elected to the state executive committee in 1929 and was the Treasurer of the state organization in 1927- 1932. She left NC in 1935 when her husband moved to Washington, D.C. where her husband worked for the US Department of Labor and was a member of President Roosevelt's "Black
Cabinet.: Raleigh News and Observer articles:
6-29-27 p. 4
3-3-1921, p. 2
Raleigh News and Observer 4-2-21 p. 2
She is also mentioned in these newspaper articles from the The News and Observer Raleigh, North Carolina:
31 Jan 1933, P. 2, Mar 06, 1921, p. 17, Jan 6, 1921, p. 5, 16 Dec 1928, P.6, June 16, 1921 · Page 12
Annie Groves Perkinson was one of the first two African American nursing graduates in NC. She graduated in 1898 from SAHSON before there were NCBON exams. She passed the state boards in 1917. Annie Groves was born in approximately 1872 to Alstan and Margaret Groves in Raleigh. By 1902 she was the Head Nurse at Leonard Medical School Hospital in Raleigh. According to the 1910 census she was 38 years old and living at home with her mother and father. Her employment was listed as a trained nurse working with a private family (private duty nurse). In 1910 or 1911 she married Mr. Perkinson but was widowed by the 1920 census that she her living at home with her mother and working as a nurse with a “city charity nurse” (Associated Charities). She was hired by the Colored Auxiliary of the Board of Charities in Raleigh in 1916. Her work during the 1918 “Spanish Flu” pandemic was noteworthy. In 1930 when she 60 years old she attended the NC Association of Colored Graduate Nurses convention in Raleigh. Six years later she passed away at age 66. She is mentioned in these Raleigh newspaper clippings:
Mary Peebles was a public health nurse in Winston-Salem. She was the president of the Winston-Salem chapter in 1926 and 1930. She was elected to the state executive committee in 1929 and gave a talk about public health nursing at the convention in Raleigh in 1930.
Sadie Price graduated from Lincoln Hospital in 1916 and attended the first Convention in Winston-Salem in 1923.
Willette Freeland Bailey Price – Graduated from LHSON and passed the state boards in 1918. She attended the 1924, 1925, 1926 and 1929 NCACGN conventions. She was a public health/school nurse in Durham and later an "Admitting officer" at Lincoln Hospital. In 1943 she worked for a federal program to improve the health of migrant farm workers, managed by the Farm Security Administration called the Seaboard Agricultural Workers Health Association. She may have worked there through 1947 when the program closed. In 1929, "Mrs. L.A. Oxley of Raleigh and Mrs. Freedland Price of Durham gave a talk on the Rural aspects of Public Health Nursing".
Charlotte Rhone was from and worked her whole life in New Bern except for her years at Freedman's Hospital in Washington DC where she graduated in 1903. She was the first African American Registered Nurse in North Carolina and probably the United States. She worked as a public health nurse and social worker. She attended the first meeting of the national organization in 1908, and was elected Secretary of the national organization, but was not active in the state association.
Sallie Elizabeth (Mrs. C.E.) Richardson was from Spring Hope. In 1918 she graduated from SAHSON and passed state boards. She attended conventions in 1933. In 1934 she gave a talk on “The public health nursing bag”. In 1935 was elected to the Board of Directors and served until 1942. She was elected Secretary of the state wide organization and 1944.
Eula Saffrit was from Charlotte. She graduated from Good Samaritan School of Nursing and passed state boards in 1930. She elected to the Board of Directors in 1933 and re-elected in 1935.
Gertrude M. R. Salter graduated from SAHSON in 1903. She lived and worked in High Point and was at the first 1923 meeting in Winston-Salem where she spoke on “The problems of private duty”.
Anna E. Saunders was born in 1900. She attended the founding meeting in Washington DC in 1921. She graduated from Benedict College Hospital in Columbia SC and passed NC Boards in 1920. In 1923, at the organizational meeting she gave a talk on “The problems of hospital work”. In 1925 she was elected to the Board of Directors. In 1926 she was elected Secretary of the High Point chapter and the state wide executive board, In 1933 she gave a talk on “Loyalty to the profession”. She also attended the meeting in 1941. Later she was involved in efforts to raise money for an air-ambulance service, and helped with a "colored" Girl Scout troop in High Point. (High Point Enterprise 9-3-1941)
Nellie Saluda McKenzie Sanders was born on November 19, 1894, the daughter of Professor Rufus McKenzie and Lucy Ann Edwell McKenzie of Greensboro. She graduated from LHSON in 1909. In 1918 she was a public health nurse employed by the Home Service Section and Negro Chamber of Commerce in Charlotte and was engaged in “general nursing of the Negroes” (Charlotte Observer 8-2- 1919, p. 3 in an article titled “Want funds for public nursing"). She passed the state boards in 1925. On May 10, 1928 she married Professor Madison Sanders who taught at Florida A & M in Tallahassee. She attended the organizational meeting in 1923, was on a public health nursing “round table” discussion in 1925, attended the convention in 1927 and responded to a talk Lillyn Newsome gave about maternal/child health in 1929. In 1936, she hosted a meeting of the Charlotte Chapter of the NCACGN/Florence Nightingale Club. She was widowed by 1940 and never had children. Sanders died on May 10, 1953.
Catherine Blanche Hayes Sansom – See Presidents biographies
Lillian M. Robinson Savage - Was born around 1898. She graduated from SAHSON in 1916. The 1930 census shows her working as a public health nurse in Durham. She attended the 3rd Convention in 1925 and was elected to the executive committee. She attended the 1926 convention. She led a discussion at the 1929 annual session. By the 1950s she was working with the welfare department in Gastonia.
Mattie Mae Sampson Sears was from Asheville. She gave a talk at 15th convention in Charlotte in 1937. She was born on 5-30-1899, graduated from Dixie Hospital in Virginia in 1925. She was the Superintendent of Blue Ridge Hospital School of Nursing in Asheville in the 1927. The 1928 city directory of Asheville lists her as a school nurse. In 1940 she was working for a New Deal WPA school project in Asheville. In 1947 she was President of the Asheville Chapter of the NCANRN. She passed away on March 30, 1977.
Girlie (Girly) Lee Jones Strickland was born on June 20, 1888 in Roxboro. She graduated from LHSON in 1916, winning the W.C. Strudwick prize. She passed state boards in 1917. In 1916 she became an early public health nurse in Winston-Salem. By 1917 she was the school nurse and in charge of "nurse training" day the Depot Street Colored School in Winston-Salem. She attended in the organizational meeting in 1923 and spoke on “The advantages and disadvantages of public health nursing”. In 1926 she spoke on “Malnutrition”. In 1935 she gave another talk on “Public Health Nursing”. She attended the 1945 convention.
She is mentioned in these newspaper articles:
Durham Morning Herald May 21, 1916, p.2; Winston-Salem Journal Sept 10, 1916, p. 8 and April 22, 1917, Page 18
Gwendolyn/Gladys Sykes Carney was from Goldsboro where she was a public health nurse. Sykes graduated from LHSON and passed state boards 1931. She joined the organization in 1934, gave a talk in 1937 at the 15th annual convention in Charlotte, was honored as a WWII veteran at the 1946 convention and was elected treasurer of the state wide group in 1947.
M.L. Taylor was one of the first 5 founders of the NCACGN. She attended the national convention in 1920 in Washington DC. She lived and worked in High Point Greensboro, and Winston-Salem. She graduated from LHSON and passed state boards in 1921. She served as the first state wide secretary of the NCACGN and the Secretary of the Greensboro chapter in 1926.
Salome Taylor came to NC in 1922 to become the Nursing Superintendent of Community Hospital in Wilmington. She graduated from Lincoln Hospital School of Nursing in NYC. Taylor passed the NC state boards in 1925. She supervised the training of nurses at the hospital and oversaw the graduation of its first two nurses in 1924. In 1926, her duties were increased when she succeeded Dr. Foster Burnett as superintendent of Community Hospital. Taylor resigned as hospital superintendent in 1940 but stayed on as superintendent of nurses until her retirement in June 1950. Under her supervision, the nursing student body greatly expanded. In May 1963, the city of Wilmington declared a “Salome Taylor Day” in her honor. She died Jan. 3, 1964.
She formed the Wilmington chapter of the NCACGN in 1930 and served as its president. She was elected Chair of the Ways and Means Committee of the national group. In 1931 she gave a paper on the advantages and disadvantages of small hospitals at the annual convention. She was honored at the 1941 convention and gave the welcoming address at the 1942 convention.
Mary Elizabeth Wall was from Charlotte. She graduated from Good Samaritan Hospital School of Nursing and passed the NCBON exams in 1927. She, with Eunice Douglas, gave a talk at the 1929 Convention on Well Baby clinics and care of pre-school children. Wall was elected secretary of the Charlotte chapter/ Florence Nightingale Club in 1935 and attended the 1941 convention.
Claudia Mae White Tucker was born about 1894 in Greensboro. She graduated from LHSON and passed state boards in 1921. She worked at Lincoln Hospital and then became a private duty nurse in High Point. She attended the organizational meeting in 1923 where she spoke about “The Problems of Institutional work”. She was elected to the executive Board at the 1925 meeting and attended the 1926 and 1927 conventions.
Mercy Dorothy (M.D.) Wheeler Edwards was born about 1903, in SC. She graduated from SAHSON and passed the state boards in 1921. Edwards worked at St Agnes Hospital for 4 years. She joined the NCACGN in 1925 and was elected to the Executive Committee in 1926. She married J. H. Edwards Sept 14, 1929, an Episcopal Priest and then moved to Charlotte and worked at Good Samaritan Hospital. She attended the conventions in 1926, 1929, 1930 and 1945. She was the state wide Parliamentarian in 1947.
Annie Mae Wheeler lived and worked in Charlotte. She was President of the Charlotte Chapter/Florence Nightingale Club in 1925. She gave a talk on “Office Nursing” in 1929. and attended the 1934 convention. She was the secretary of the Charlotte chapter in 1936. Wheeler presided at the public meeting of the 15th NCACGN convention in Charlotte in 1937. The 1930 and 1940 census show her as a trained nurse working at a private hospital (assumed to be the African American Good Samaritan Hospital) in Charlotte. She died of cancer in 1942.
Ethel Mae Young was from Mercersburg, PA. She was a graduate of Freedman’s Hospital, Washington DC. Young passed the NCBON exams in 1930. She joined the NCACGN in 1930. In 1932 she was elected Secretary of the state wide group. In 1933 she gave a talk on “New methods of training school record keeping” and she was elected 2nd Vice President of the NCACGN. She was re-elected the next year. In 1936 she studied nursing school administration at Columbia University in NYC. In 1937 she was named Superintendent of Nurses at St Agnes Hospital in Raleigh. See the: St. Augustine's Record. October 01, 1935 Image 2
Willie Lucille Zimmerman Williams was born in 1907 in Anderson, S.C. She graduated from SAHSON in 1934. She worked at St. Agnes as a lab technician and a nurse anesthetist. She served as President of the Raleigh Chapter of the NCANRN in 1934 before she became a field nurse for the Farm Secretary Administration, and traveled the east coast working with immigrants. In 1941 she was elected Recording Secretary of the state wide group. In 1945 she became the Director of the LHSON where she finished her career. In 1948 she was elected President of the Southeast region of the NACGN.
SELECTED NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS ABOUT THE NCACGN/NCSANRN
Sept. 19, 1918 p.6 Greensboro Daily New
In some towns, African American nurses had organizations before the
NCACGN was founded
The New York Age New York, New York 28 Apr 1923, Page 2
Nursing News and Announcements. (1925). The American Journal of Nursing, 25(7), p. 618
12-24-1925 The Charlotte Observer Charlotte, North Carolina, P.4
January 17, 1928 The Charlotte Observer p.6
May 3,1930 The New York Age p.7
May 3, 1930, The Pittsburgh Courier p. 14
The News and Observer Raleigh, North Carolina
09 May 1930, P. 8
The News and Observer Raleigh, North Carolina Thu, Jun 25, 1931 · Page 16
1-6-1935 The Charlotte Observer p.13
12-22-35, The Charlotte News, Charlotte, NC p.14
The Charlotte Observer, 12- 15, 1935, p.17
12-5-1935 The Charlotte Observer p.8
The Charlotte News Charlotte, North Carolina, 10-15-36, p 22
The Charlotte Observer June 9,1937, p. 7
May 28, 1938
The Charlotte Observer, Charlotte, North Carolina, 16 Jun 1944, P 21
The Future Outlook Greensboro, NC 6-26-1943. P. 3
Asheville Citizen-Times, Asheville, NC, June 5, 1947, p.12
Asheville Citizen-Times, Asheville, North Carolina, June 6, 1947, P 11
Charlotte Observer 10-19-1948
Raleigh News and Oberver 10-19-1948, p. 12
The Charlotte Observer, 10-21-1948, P. 18
The Charlotte Observer 10-25-1948, p. 6
The Carolinian, Raleigh, NC 7-2-1949, p.1
At the 1952 NC State Nurse Association Convention celebrating 50 years of organized, professional nursing in the state, 3 past presidents of NCANRN sat in a place of honor.
Tar Heel Nurse March, 1952 p.6
The Pittsburgh Courier 10-24-1953 Page 4
Available brochures of Annual Meetings of the NC Association of Negro Registered Nurses
Below are minutes of the 1948 NCNA meeting in which delegates discussed and voted to integrate the organization. The motion to integrate was the 7th action item on the agenda.
Seventh, that Negro nurses become members of the American Nurses’ Association through membership in the North Carolina State Nurses’ Association. Madam President, I move the adoption of this recommendation. (The motion was seconded by Miss Eula Rackley.)
PRESIDENT: Perhaps you would like to have just a few words on this. As you know, there are just nine states, I think, we have been told that on a number of occasions, which do not admit Negro nurses to the A.N.A. through their state associations and North Carolina is one of the nine. Is there any discussion on this matter?
MEMBER: Does this mean that they are going to be members of the district associations?
PRESIDENT: They would be members of the district associations.
MEMBER: And that means that they would have to meet with us?
MISS COLUMBIS MUNDS: It means that they would come into all social life and in this part of the country we are not used to that. Why do we have to do that in North Carolina? Can’t we let them join right through the National Association and let them keep their own organization in the different places in the state?
PRESIDENT: There is a provision for them to join directly into the American Nurses’ Association, if the state does not give them that privilege.
MEMBER: That seems to be sufficient.
MISS MUNDS: It seems to me that we are bringing about the ruin of the whole social life of our own state association by doing that. I don’t see how we can have any social life. We can have business meetings but that would be the end of it, I think.
PRESIDENT: I believe it is the thought of the colored nurses that they would like to be associated with us for the educational advantage.
MISS MUNDS: I don’t see how you can keep them from attending any meetings that you might have; you can’t say that they can go to the business meetings and nothing else. I talked to a lawyer about that the other day and he said that this is a voluntary organization and it is up to you what you do but if you let them in they have the privileges of the association. I think that is the thing that we have to consider. I don’t see why they can’t join the National and then maintain their own clubs. I have worked with them for years and I have tried to get them to organize actively ever since I started Public Health work, that is ever since I have had Negro nurses and I have found that they are very inactive.
PRESIDENT: Thank you, Miss Munds. Are there other discussions?
RUTH HAY: I understand that there are 256 Negro nurses in North Carolina and there are three thousand white nurses in North Carolina, or about one to twelve. I wonder how much we are jeopardizing our position as the superior dominant race when there is that proposition. I wonder if it would not be helpful to the thinking of this organization if Mrs. Noell would read to use the application that she read to the Board of Directors last night?
MRS. MARIE B. NOELL: I don’t believe that I have that and I am sorry that I do not have it. I would be glad to give Miss Hay a story about this. For several years this matter has been coming before the Board of Directors of the State Nurses’ Association and I think it was in 1940 that the President at that time appointed a committee of the Board of Directors to study the matter and this committee made a very good report and determined at that time there would be no further consideration of the matter. Then two years there was another committee appointed and it seem that quite a lot of progress had been made and that the attitude of the members of the association generally speaking had changed completely. And then it was last year that we had another committee and this committee recommended that they come into the association as soon as possible. At that time our charter or certificate of incorporation included on sentence saying that “only white nurses can belong to this association”. Then came the adoption of the Economic Security Program and it was vitally necessary to amend the charter or certificate of incorporation in order to make a change so that the association could do collective bargaining and it was unanimously agreed by the Board that this sentence be deleted from the charter. It was deleted in April, 1947. Then the structure of the National Nurses’ Association can absorb the functions of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses. This committee has recommended and it has been sent to those state associations—to states with dual organizations—that is, with an organization unit of A.N.A. and also an organization for Negro Nurses in the state, suggesting that they have joint committees of the two associations to work together. We had such in this state and last January there was a conference held in headquarters office, ten members of the North Carolina Association of Negro Registered Nurses meeting with us. There was a very free and open discussion about the social customs, the advantages the Negro nurses would get from coming into A.N.A. through the State Nurses’ Association and all ten or those Negro nurses that day said they felt all of the Negro nurses in the state would be very sensible about the social customs. In other words they would not expect to secure sleeping rooms in a white hotel in North Carolina at this time and they would not expect to have meals served. Now we have nothing written about that; they know the social customs that exist the same as we do and in addition to that they have a clannish feeling; they like to get together themselves and I don’t think we are going to be overcome with them as members. Another thing is that at the present time their dues are three dollars, whereas our dues amount to about thirteen. I that that will come into the picture. They have 256 members at this time but I doubt that we would have 256 come into our association on the first year. The asked that someone from our association attend their annual meeting, which was held at Bennet College in Greensboro in June. Miss Helen Peeler and I went and we talked to them. Miss Heinzerling was unable to go, but we spoke to them about the work of their association and the work of our association and how it might be advantageous to both groups to have them both in one organization. Mrs. Daley, who is President of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses was there that day and after a rather free discussion—and I might say here that many of them were not eager to come into our association—they were afraid that they would miss their social life in their organizations and they wanted to know specifically …
PG. 43 Missing
MEMBER: In one instance I am afraid that they might be the losers, because they have more fun than we do when they go somewhere and I am wondering if they come into the organization if it would be their loss to have us around while they are having such fun—because they do have a lot of fun.
MRS. LOUISE P. EAST: I would like to say what I said at the Board Meeting. I am a Tar Heel bred, too; but our association was the one that brought up the question. We went to the Negro nurses and talked to them about the advisability of them coming in the A.N.A. through the North Carolina State Nurse Association and more or less asking them to come to a decision about the matter. Now they have made a decision—how could we very well back down on something that we started ourselves? And I believe that the social customs and the arrangements, and all those things are details that we will have to work out, but shouldn’t we look at the larger sphere of this question and see whether we would not benefit the Negro nurse by allowing her to worked out so that they will not feel unwelcome. I don’t believe you would have any trouble with them.
PRESIDENT: Thank you, Mrs. East.
MISS MUNDS: I don’t want to do all the talking on this side of the room, but if they were in the National and then we could invite them to our meeting to get the benefit of the educational features they would have full privileges, but as it is they can maintain their own club. If we take them in we will not be able to tell them they can’t do anything or they can do such and such, after they get in, because if they come in as members of the district they are members of the district and you can’t make any arrangements afterwards as far as I can see. I am not at all adverse to the Negro nurse having every advantage. I think they do have every educational advantage that they can have and we have certainly tried to help all the Negro nurses all we can but I think that is a very grave problem and I think it is something that we are going to regret. I think it is something that the Negro nurses are probably not going to enjoy as much as they would having their own meetings and having privileges of their own club that they can have in their meetings all the time.
MEMBER: I don’t know how it would be about our banquet in the hotels of North Carolina, but I do not believe the hotel would take them in.
PRESIDENT: That is the impression that I have, that the hotels in North Carolina would not admit them to their public dining rooms. I have not seen that occur anywhere. However, it does occur in the North, of course, where they have the privilege of going in the dining rooms.
MEMBER: Do we always have our banquet at a hotel?
PRESIDENT: As a rule it is held there.
MEMBER: Could we have it somewhere else?
PRESIDENT: They know that and they said as much at the meeting, but of course we do not have anything in writing. That is as definite as we have it, that they would not be invited for participation in the social functions with the white nurses.
MRS. MARIE B. NOELL: May I say something. I have been making arrangements for our annual meetings for several years now and back in 1940 there wasn’t a place, a hotel in North Carolina that we could even invite a Negro educator into one of our meetings. That has changed considerably and in the last few years we get permission to invite them in provided we do not have more than fifteen or more than twenty-five, and we were told three or four years ago that we would have to meet them at the front door and escort them into our meeting room and to be sure that they did not loiter around the lobby, but we don’t even have to do that now, and the young graduates of Negro schools take the examinations with the white nurses and some of those examinations are held at the Robert E. Lee Hotel in Winston-Salem, one of the best hotels in the state. The hotel permits those girls to go into the front door, to stand in line and they do not stay there but they go right in the front door as any other person would do and I think that shows that generally speaking a lot of progress has been made in this respect. These Negro nurses have just as much sense about social customs in the South as we do and I don’t think that you will find them overbearing, certainly in committee meetings. They have said that they would be perfectly sensible about it and it is not the educated Negro that causes the trouble in this respect. If you ride on a bus through the South, the educated Negro in there will not insist on sitting on the front seat; it is the other type, and I think you are going to be dealing with this higher type of Negro.
PRESIDENT: Is there any further discussion? Are you ready for this question?
MISS HAY: I can’t claim to be Tar Heel born and bred but I am in the position of an adopted child who is told that his parents selected him because they wanted him. Well, I am reversing it; I selected North Carolina as my home state and I have been told that when I stepped off the train I stepped in a puddle of tar. They laughed at me last night when I brought up the fact that Mississippi, which we in North Carolina and pretty much over the nation think is just about the deepest of the Deep South, and Mississippi over a year ago, with the minimum amount of discussion took action in the State Nurses Association to admit Negro nurses to the American Nurses’ through the Mississippi State Nurses’ Association. I say, they laughed at me last night because I said, “We can’t allow Mississippi to get ahead of North Carolina.” (Applause).
PRESIDENT: Are we ready to vote? The motion has been made and seconded. All in favor will please say “aye”. Those opposed “no”. Stand up and we will count you. (There being twenty-two votes against, the motion was carried by a majority of fifty-two.)